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gearConditionMetrics

Standard metrics for gear condition monitoring

Syntax

gearMetrics = gearConditionMetrics(X)
gearMetrics = gearConditionMetrics(T)
gearMetrics = gearConditionMetrics(___,Name,Value)
gearMetrics = gearConditionMetrics(T,sigVar,diffVar,regVar,resVar)
gearMetrics = gearConditionMetrics(___,'SortBy',sortByValue)
[gearMetrics,info] = gearConditionMetrics(___)

Description

example

gearMetrics = gearConditionMetrics(X) returns the gear condition monitoring metrics gearMetrics using the vibration data in cell array X. gearConditionMetrics assumes that each cell element in X contains columns of time-synchronous averaged (TSA), difference, regular, and residual signals, in their respective order. If the signals are not in the same order, then use Name,Value pair arguments.

example

gearMetrics = gearConditionMetrics(T) computes the gear condition monitoring metrics gearMetrics from vibration dataset T. gearConditionMetrics assumes that T contains columns of TSA, difference, regular, and residual signals, in their respective order. If the signals are not in the same order, then use Name,Value pair arguments.

example

gearMetrics = gearConditionMetrics(___,Name,Value) allows you to specify additional parameters using one or more name-value pair arguments.

example

gearMetrics = gearConditionMetrics(T,sigVar,diffVar,regVar,resVar) computes the gear condition monitoring metrics gearMetrics from vibration dataset T. Use [] or '' to skip a signal in the computation. For instance, if the data set T contains only the TSA and regular signal, use the syntax in the following way.

gearMetrics = gearConditionMetrics(T,sigVar,[],regVar,[])

example

gearMetrics = gearConditionMetrics(___,'SortBy',sortByValue) allows you to specify the chronological order of the signal histories using sortByValue. NA4 depends on the chronological order of the vibration data since gearConditionMetrics uses the previous datasets up to the current index to compute the metric.

example

[gearMetrics,info] = gearConditionMetrics(___) also returns the structure info containing information about the table or fileEnsembleDatastore object variables assigned to various signals.

Examples

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Consider a drivetrain with six gears driven by a motor that is fitted with a vibration sensor, as depicted in the figure below. Gear 1 on the motor shaft meshes with gear 2 with a gear ratio of 17:1. The final gear ratio, that is, the ratio between gears 1 and 2 and gears 3 and 4, is 51:1. Gear 5, also on the motor shaft, meshes with gear 6 with a gear ratio of 10:1. The motor is spinning at 180 RPM, and the sampling rate of the vibration sensor is 50 kHz.

Create the dataset.

rpm = 180;                                          
fs = 50e3;                                          
t = (0:1/fs:(1/3)-1/fs)'; % sample times
orderList = [17 51];                                
f = rpm/60*[1 orderList 6];

In practice, you would use measured data such as vibration signals obtained from an accelerometer. For this example, generate TSA signal X, which is the simulated data from the vibration sensor mounted on the motor, and then compute the difference, regular, and residual signals. Store the signals in a preallocated table.

T = table('Size',[10 4],'VariableTypes',{'cell','cell','cell','cell'},'VariableNames',{'TSA','Diff','Reg','Res'});
for k = 1:10
    X = sin(2*pi*f(1)*t) + sin(2*pi*2*f(1)*t) + ... % motor shaft rotation and harmonic
    3*sin(2*pi*f(2)*t) + 3*sin(2*pi*2*f(2)*t) + ... % gear mesh vibration and harmonic for gears 1 and 2
    4*sin(2*pi*f(3)*t) + 4*sin(2*pi*2*f(3)*t) + ... % gear mesh vibration and harmonic for gears 3 and 4
    2*(k/6)*sin(2*pi*10*f(1)*t) + randn(size(t))/5;    % gear mesh vibration for gears 5 and 6 and noise
  res = tsaresidual(X, fs, rpm, orderList);
  dif = tsadifference(X, fs, rpm, orderList);
  reg = tsaregular(X, fs, rpm, orderList);
  
  T(k,'TSA') = {X};
  T(k,'Diff') = {dif};
  T(k,'Reg') = {reg};
  T(k,'Res') = {res};
end
T
T=10×4 table
          TSA                 Diff                Reg                 Res       
    ________________    ________________    ________________    ________________

    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]
    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]
    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]
    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]
    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]
    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]
    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]
    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]
    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]
    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]    [16666x1 double]

T is a 10x4 table, where each element is a cell array.

Compute the gear condition monitoring metrics using the dataset in table T.

[gearMetrics1,info1] = gearConditionMetrics(T,'SignalVariable','TSA','DifferenceVariable','Diff','RegularVariable','Reg','ResidualVariable','Res')
gearMetrics1=10×9 table
     RMS      Kurtosis    CrestFactor     FM4       M6A       M8A       FM0      EnergyRatio     NA4  
    ______    ________    ___________    ______    ______    ______    ______    ___________    ______

    5.1119      2.074       2.4377       2.4633    9.0009     42.31    1.5499     0.060057      2.4637
    5.1272      2.087       2.4819       1.9331    4.9869    15.634    1.5785      0.10044      4.1973
    5.1526      2.102       2.4744       1.7084    3.6211    8.8635    1.5881      0.14423      5.5871
    5.1877     2.1264       2.5443         1.63    3.1749    6.9296    1.6424      0.18889      6.7318
    5.2385     2.1566       2.5985       1.5861    2.9421    6.0165    1.6937      0.23407      7.6258
    5.2953     2.1879        2.605       1.5604    2.8046    5.4734    1.7211      0.28052      8.3807
     5.365     2.2277       2.6551       1.5423    2.7169    5.1619    1.7761      0.32511      8.8352
    5.4425     2.2574       2.6428       1.5356    2.6796     5.016    1.7945      0.37196      9.3879
    5.5269     2.2891       2.7112       1.5269    2.6344    4.8502    1.8614      0.41819      9.7477
    5.6219     2.3214       2.6979       1.5202    2.6015    4.7342    1.8892      0.46377      10.022

info1 = struct with fields:
    DifferenceVariable: 'Diff'
       RegularVariable: 'Reg'
      ResidualVariable: 'Res'
        SignalVariable: 'TSA'
                SortBy: ''

Observe that the gear metrics are changing due to fault in gear mesh between gears 5 and 6. The NA4 value is highly sensitive to the fault and its propagation as it significantly increases in value over the different data sets.

info1 contains information about variables that were used to compute the metrics.

Alternatively, you can also compute the metrics using following syntax.

[gearMetrics2,info2] = gearConditionMetrics(T,'TSA','Diff','Reg','Res')
gearMetrics2=10×9 table
     RMS      Kurtosis    CrestFactor     FM4       M6A       M8A       FM0      EnergyRatio     NA4  
    ______    ________    ___________    ______    ______    ______    ______    ___________    ______

    5.1119      2.074       2.4377       2.4633    9.0009     42.31    1.5499     0.060057      2.4637
    5.1272      2.087       2.4819       1.9331    4.9869    15.634    1.5785      0.10044      4.1973
    5.1526      2.102       2.4744       1.7084    3.6211    8.8635    1.5881      0.14423      5.5871
    5.1877     2.1264       2.5443         1.63    3.1749    6.9296    1.6424      0.18889      6.7318
    5.2385     2.1566       2.5985       1.5861    2.9421    6.0165    1.6937      0.23407      7.6258
    5.2953     2.1879        2.605       1.5604    2.8046    5.4734    1.7211      0.28052      8.3807
     5.365     2.2277       2.6551       1.5423    2.7169    5.1619    1.7761      0.32511      8.8352
    5.4425     2.2574       2.6428       1.5356    2.6796     5.016    1.7945      0.37196      9.3879
    5.5269     2.2891       2.7112       1.5269    2.6344    4.8502    1.8614      0.41819      9.7477
    5.6219     2.3214       2.6979       1.5202    2.6015    4.7342    1.8892      0.46377      10.022

info2 = struct with fields:
    DifferenceVariable: 'Diff'
       RegularVariable: 'Reg'
      ResidualVariable: 'Res'
        SignalVariable: 'TSA'
                SortBy: ''

Consider gearData.zip, a collection of 9 data sets where each file contains separate timetables for the TSA, difference, regular and residual signals.

Extract the compressed files, read the data in the timetables, and create a fileEnsembleDatastore object using the timetable data. For more information on creating a file ensemble datastore, see gearConditionMetrics.

unzip gearData.zip;
ens = fileEnsembleDatastore(pwd,'.mat');
% Make sure that the function for reading data is on path
addpath(fullfile(matlabroot,'examples','predmaint','main')) 
ens.ReadFcn = @readData;
ens.DataVariables = {'TSA','Diff','Reg','Res'};
ens.SelectedVariables = ens.DataVariables;

Compute the gear condition metrics using the data in the ensemble datastore.

[gearMetrics,info] = gearConditionMetrics(ens,'SignalVariable','TSA','DifferenceVariable','Diff','RegularVariable','Reg','ResidualVariable','Res')
gearMetrics=9×9 table
     RMS      Kurtosis    CrestFactor     FM4       M6A       M8A       FM0      EnergyRatio     NA4  
    ______    ________    ___________    ______    ______    ______    ______    ___________    ______

    5.1119     2.0734       2.3417       2.4977    9.3854    45.859    1.4919     0.060189      2.4981
    5.1271      2.086       2.3714       1.9236    4.9222    15.262    1.5155      0.10018      4.1509
    5.1526      2.101       2.3938       1.7199    3.6873    9.1708    1.5398      0.14418      5.6187
    5.1882     2.1247       2.4128       1.6283    3.1667    6.9051    1.5589      0.18951      6.7806
     5.238     2.1572         2.45       1.5816    2.9135    5.8919    1.5994      0.23373      7.5444
    5.2947     2.1888       2.4253       1.5571    2.7877    5.4113    1.5956      0.28007      8.3138
    5.3657      2.226       2.4526       1.5443    2.7251    5.1856    1.6297      0.32562      8.8783
    5.4421     2.2564        2.447       1.5341    2.6718    4.9888    1.6549      0.37177      9.3428
    5.5254     2.2867       2.4349       1.5269    2.6354    4.8572    1.6763      0.41747      9.6986

info = struct with fields:
    DifferenceVariable: 'Diff'
       RegularVariable: 'Reg'
      ResidualVariable: 'Res'
        SignalVariable: 'TSA'
                SortBy: ''

The output table contains 9 rows of metrics where each row corresponds to one data set.

rmpath(fullfile(matlabroot,'examples','predmaint','main')) % Reset path

Input Arguments

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Vibration dataset, specified as a cell array of matrices or timetables, where each cell contains the signals corresponding to one time in the historical record. Each cell element in X contains columns of vibration data representing a combination of TSA, difference, regular, and residual signals.

Vibration dataset, specified as a timetable, table of vectors, table of tables/timetables or a fileEnsembleDatastore object. Each member (row) of T contains the signals corresponding to one time in the historical record. When T is a table, each table element contains a signal vector or a table/timetable with a single numeric column variable. The table variables represent TSA, difference, regular, and residual signals.

When T is a single timetable, gearConditionMetrics interprets it as a single cell of the same timetable. For instance, consider a single timetable TT. The command gearConditionMetrics(TT) is interpreted as gearConditionMetrics({T}).

TSA signal variable, specified as a string or character array. sigVar is equivalent to the 'SignalVariable' name-value pair.

Difference signal variable, specified as a string or character array. diffVar is equivalent to the 'DifferenceVariable' name-value pair.

Regular signal variable, specified as a string or character array. regVar is equivalent to the 'RegularVariable' name-value pair.

Residual signal variable, specified as a string or character array. resVar is equivalent to the 'ResidualVariable' name-value pair.

Value of 'SortBy', specified as a string. For more information, see 'SortBy'.

Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments. Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN.

Example: …,'SortBy','FaultCode'

TSA signal variable, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'SignalVariable' and a string or character array.

'SignalVariable' must be a valid table variable name when the dataset is specified as a table or timetable. When the data is specified as a cell array of matrices, the values ’Var1’,’Var2’,... can be used to refer to the data columns. If 'SignalVariable' is not specified, gearConditionMetrics assumes that the first data column contains the TSA signal.

The RMS, Kurtosis, Crest Factor, and FM0 metrics require the TSA signal for computation. If the TSA signal is not available, gearConditionMetrics returns NaN for these metrics.

Difference signal variable, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'DifferenceVariable' and a string or character array.

'DifferenceVariable' must be a valid table variable name when the dataset is specified as a table or timetable. When the data is specified as a cell array of matrices, the values ’Var1’,’Var2’,... can be used to refer to the data columns. If 'DifferenceVariable' is not specified, gearConditionMetrics assumes that the second data column contains the difference signal.

The FM4, M6A, M8A and Energy Ratio metrics require the difference signal for computation. If the difference signal is not available, gearConditionMetrics returns NaN for these metrics.

For more information on difference signals, see tsadifference.

Regular signal variable, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'RegularVariable' and a string or character array.

'RegularVariable' must be a valid table variable name when the dataset is specified as a table or timetable. When the data is specified as a cell array of matrices, the values ’Var1’,’Var2’,... can be used to refer to the data columns. If 'RegularVariable' is not specified, gearConditionMetrics assumes that the third data column contains the regular signal.

The FM0 and Energy Ratio metrics require the regular signal for computation. If the regular signal is not available, gearConditionMetrics returns NaN for these metrics.

For more information on regular signals, see tsaregular.

Residual signal variable, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'ResidualVariable' and a string or character array.

'ResidualVariable' must be a valid table variable name when the dataset is specified as a table or timetable. When the data is specified as a cell array of matrices, the values ’Var1’,’Var2’,... can be used to refer to the data columns. If 'ResidualVariable' is not specified, gearConditionMetrics assumes that the fourth data column contains the residual signal.

The NA4 metric requires the residual signal for computation. If the residual signal is not available, gearConditionMetrics returns NaN for NA4.

For more information on residual signals, see tsaresidual.

Signal ordering variable, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'SortBy' and a string. Use 'SortBy' to order the signal histories in ascending order only when the input dataset T is a table of vectors or table of tables/timetables. gearConditionMetrics sorts the rows in ascending order with respect to 'SortBy' before computing gearMetrics. The value in the specified table column must be a valid input to 'SortBy. For more information, see sort.

If 'SortBy' is not specified or if the dataset is a cell array or fileEnsembleDatastore, then the signal histories are assumed to be in ascending order, that is, older data at the top.

Output Arguments

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Gear condition monitoring metrics, returned as a table, where each row corresponds to its respective member in X or T. gearConditionMetrics returns the following condition monitoring metrics:

Computed from TSA Signal

  • Root-Mean Square (RMS) — Indicates the general condition of the gearbox in later stages of degradation. RMS is sensitive to gearbox load and speed changes.

  • Kurtosis — Fourth order normalized moment of the signal that indicates major peaks in the amplitude distribution. A signal consisting exclusively of Gaussian distributed noise has an approximate kurtosis value of 3. Kurtosis values are higher for damaged gear trains due to sharp peaks in the amplitude distribution of the signal.

  • Crest Factor (CF) — Ratio of signal peak value to RMS value that indicates early signs of damage, especially where vibration signals exhibit impulsive traits.

Computed from Difference Signal

  • FM4 — Describes how peaked or flat the difference signal amplitude is. FM4 is normalized by the square of the variance, and detects faults isolated to only a finite number of teeth in a gear mesh.

  • M6A — Describes how peaked or flat the difference signal amplitude is. M6A is normalized by the cube of the variance, and indicates surface damage on the rotating machine components.

  • M8A — An improved version of the M6A indicator. M8A is normalized by the fourth power of the variance.

Computed from a Mix of Signals

  • FM0 — Compares ratio of peak value of TSA signal to energy of regular signal. FM0 identifies major anomalies, such as tooth breakage or heavy wear, in the meshing pattern of a gear.

  • Energy Ratio (ER) — Ratio between energy of the difference signal and the energy of the regular meshing component. Energy Ratio indicates heavy wear, where multiple teeth on the gear are damaged.

Computed from a Set of Residual Signals

  • NA4 — An improved version of the FM4 indicator. NA4 indicates the onset of damage and continues to react to the damage as it spreads and increases in magnitude.

gearConditionMetrics returns NaN for metrics when their respective signals are not available for computation. For more information about these metrics, see Algorithms.

Signal assignment information, returned as a structure with the following fields:

  • DifferenceVariable — Difference variable name

  • RegularVariable — Regular variable name

  • ResidualVariable — Residual variable name

  • SignalVariable — TSA signal variable name

  • SortBy — Signal ordering variable name

Algorithms

Root Mean Square (RMS)

The root mean square (RMS) of the TSA signal is computed using the rms command. For a TSA signal x, RMS is computed as,

RMS(x) = 1Ni=1Nxi2.

Here, N is the number of data samples.

RMS is usually a good indicator of the overall condition of gearboxes, but not a good indicator of incipient tooth failure. It is also useful to detect unbalanced rotating elements. RMS of a standard normal distribution is 1.

For more information, see rms.

Kurtosis

Kurtosis is a measure of how outlier-prone a distribution is. The kurtosis of a standard normal distribution is 3. Distributions that are more outlier-prone have kurtosis values greater than 3; distributions that are less outlier-prone have kurtosis values less than 3.

gearConditionMetrics computes the kurtosis value of the TSA signal using the kurtosis command. The kurtosis of a sequence is defined as,

Kurtosis(x) = 1Ni=1N(xix¯)4[1Ni=1N(xix¯)2] 2.

Here, x¯ is the mean of the TSA signal x.

For more information, see kurtosis.

Crest Factor (CF)

Crest Factor is the ratio of the positive peak value of the input signal x to the RMS value. gearConditionMetrics computes the crest factor of the TSA signal using the peak2rms command.

The crest factor of a sequence is defined as,

CF(x) = P(x)RMS(x).

Here, P(x) is the peak value of the TSA signal.

The crest factor indicates the relative size of peaks to the effective value of the signal. It is a good indicator of gear damage in its early stages, where vibration signals exhibit impulsive traits.

FM4

The FM4 indicator is used to detect faults isolated to only a limited number of teeth in a gear mesh. FM4 is defined as the normalized kurtosis of the difference signal [4]. FM4 of a standard normal distribution is 3.

FM4 is computed as,

FM4(d) = 1Ni=1N(did¯)4[1Ni=1N(did¯)2] 2

where, d¯ is the mean of the difference signal d.

M6A

The M6A indicator is used to detect surface damage on machinery components. M6A employs the same theory as the FM4 metric, but uses the sixth moment of the difference signal normalized by the cube of the variance. M6A of a standard normal distribution is 15. Hence, M6A is expected to be more sensitive to peaks in the difference signal. gearConditionMetrics uses the moment command to compute M6A.

M6A is computed as,

M6A(d) = 1Ni=1N(did¯)6[1Ni=1N(did¯)2] 3

where, d¯ is the mean of the difference signal d.

M8A

The M8A indicator is an improved version of M6A. It is expected to be more sensitive to peaks in the difference signal since M6A is normalized by the fourth power of the variance. M8A of a standard normal distribution is 105. It is computed as,

M8A(d) = 1Ni=1N(did¯)8[1Ni=1N(did¯)2] 4.

FM0

FM0 is useful in detecting major anomalies in the gear meshing pattern. It does so by comparing the maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of the TSA signal to the sum of the amplitudes of the meshing frequencies and their harmonics. gearConditionMetrics uses a combination of peak2peak and fft commands to compute the FM0 metric.

FM0 is computed as,

FM0(x) = PP(x)i=1NA(i)

where, PP(x) is the peak-to-peak values of the TSA signal. A contains the frequency-domain amplitudes at the mesh frequencies and their harmonics, which represents the energy of the regular signal.

A is computed as,

A = fft(R(t))N

where, R(t) is the regular signal.

Energy Ratio (ER)

Energy Ratio is defined as the ratio of the standard deviations of the difference and regular signals [1]. It is useful as an indicator of heavy uniform wear, where multiple teeth on the gear are damaged.

Energy Ratio is computed as,

ER(x) = σ(d)σ(R)

where, d and R represent the difference and regular signals, respectively.

NA4

NA4 is an improved version of the FM4 indicator [3]. NA4 indicates the onset of damage and continues to react to the damage as it spreads and increases in magnitude.

NA4 is computed as,

NA4(r,k) = 1Ni=1N(rikr¯k)4[1kj=1k1Ni=1N(rijr¯j)2] 2

where the normalization is across all vibration data sets up to the current time k using the running average of variances of residual signals.

References

[1] Keller, Jonathan A., and P. Grabill. "Vibration monitoring of UH-60A main transmission planetary carrier fault." Annual Forum Proceedings-American Helicopter Society. Vol. 59. No. 2. American Helicopter Society, Inc, 2003.

[2] Večeř, P., Marcel Kreidl, and R. Šmíd. "Condition indicators for gearbox condition monitoring systems." Acta Polytechnica pages 35-43, 45.6 (2005).

[3] Zakrajsek, James J., Dennis P. Townsend, and Harry J. Decker. "An analysis of gear fault detection methods as applied to pitting fatigue failure data." Technical Memorandum 105950. No. NASA-E-7470. NASA, 1993.

[4] Zakrajsek, James J. "An investigation of gear mesh failure prediction techniques." MS Thesis-Cleveland State University, 1989.

Introduced in R2019a