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Generate Test Cases for Model Decision Coverage

Construct the Example Model

Construct a model for this example:

  1. Create a Simulink® model.

  2. Copy the following blocks into your empty model window:

    • From the Sources library, an Inport block to initiate the input signal whose value Simulink Design Verifier™ controls.

    • From the Sources library, two Constant blocks to serve as Switch block data inputs.

    • From the Signal Routing library, a Switch block to provide simple logic.

    • From the Sinks library, an Outport block to receive the output signal.

  3. In your model, double-click one of the Constant blocks and specify its Constant value parameter as 2.

  4. Connect the blocks so that your model appears similar to the following diagram.

  5. On the Apps tab, click the arrow on the right of the Apps section.

    Under Model Verification, Validation, and Test, click Design Verifier.

  6. On the Design Verifier tab, in the Prepare section, from the drop-down menu for the mode settings, click Settings.

  7. In the Configuration Parameters dialog box, select Solver pane. In the Solver selection:

    • Set the Type option to Fixed-step.

    • Set the Solver option to Discrete (no continuous states).

    Simulink Design Verifier analyzes only models that use a fixed-step solver.

  8. Click OK to save your changes and close the Configuration Parameters dialog box.

  9. Save your model with the name ex_generate_test_cases_example.

Check Compatibility of the Example Model

Every time Simulink Design Verifier analyzes a model, before the analysis begins, the software performs a compatibility check. If your model is not compatible, the software cannot analyze it.

Before you start the analysis, you can also make sure that your model is compatible with Simulink Design Verifier software:

  1. Open the ex_generate_test_cases_example model.

  2. On the Design Verifier tab, click Check Compatibility.

    The software displays the log window, which states whether or not your model is compatible for analysis.

    The model you just created is compatible.

What If a Model Is Partially Compatible?

If the compatibility check indicates that your model is partially compatible, your model contains at least one object that Simulink Design Verifier does not support. You can analyze a partially compatible model, but, by default, the unsupported objects are stubbed out. The results of the analysis can be incomplete.

For detailed information about automatic stubbing, see Handle Incompatibilities with Automatic Stubbing.

Configure Test Generation Options

Configure Simulink Design Verifier to generate test cases that achieve 100% decision coverage for the ex_generate_test_cases_example model:

  1. Open the ex_generate_test_cases_example model.

  2. On the Design Verifier tab, in the Mode section, select Test Generation.

  3. Click Test Generation Settings.

  4. In the Configuration Parameters dialog box, on the Test Generation pane, set the Model coverage objectives parameter to Decision.

    For this example, the analysis generates test cases that record only decision coverage.

    The Test suite optimization parameter is set by default to Auto. If you want to generate fewer but longer test cases, select LongTestcases for the Test suite optimization parameter.

  5. Click OK to save your changes and close the Configuration Parameters dialog box.

  6. Save the ex_generate_test_cases_example model.

Analyze the Example Model

On the Design Verifier tab, click Generate Tests. The Simulink Design Verifier analyzes your model to generate test cases.

During the analysis, the Results Summary window shows the progress of the analysis. It displays information such as the number of test objectives processed and which objectives are satisfied.

Review Analysis Results

When the software completes its analysis, the Results Summary window displays these options for reviewing the results.

The following sections describe how you can review the analysis results:

Review Analysis Results on the Model

Highlight the analysis results on the example model:

  1. In the Results Summary window for the ex_generate_test_cases_example analysis, click Highlight analysis results on model.

    The Switch block is highlighted in green, which indicates that the Switch block has test cases that satisfy its test objectives.

    The Simulink Design Verifier Results window opens. As you click objects in the model, this window changes to display detailed analysis results for that object. By default, the Simulink Design Verifier Results window is always the topmost visible window. To allow the window to move behind other window, click and clear Always on top.

  2. Click the highlighted Switch block.

    The Simulink Design Verifier Results window indicates that the analysis generated test cases for both test objectives:

    • trigger > threshold

    • trigger < threshold

For more information about highlighted analysis results on a model, see Highlighted Results on the Model.

Review Detailed Analysis Report

Create a detailed HTML analysis report:

  1. In the Simulink Design Verifier Results Summary window, in Detailed analysis report, click HTML.

    The HTML report opens in a browser window.

  2. The report includes the following Table of Contents. Click a hyperlink to navigate to a section in the report.

  3. In the Table of Contents, click Summary to display the report's Summary chapter.

    The Summary chapter lists information about the model and the status of the objectives—satisfied or not.

  4. In the Table of Contents, click Analysis Information to display the Analysis Information chapter.

    The Analysis Information chapter provides information about:

    • The model that you analyzed.

    • The options that you specified for the analysis.

    • Approximations the software performed during the analysis.

  5. In the Table of Contents, click Test Objectives Status to display the report's Test Objectives Status chapter.

    This table indicates that the analysis satisfied both test objectives associated with the Switch block in the ex_generate_test_cases_example model, for which it generated two test cases.

  6. Under the table Test Case column, click 2 to display the Test Case 2 section.

    This section provides details about a test case that the analysis generated to achieve an objective in your model. This test case achieves test objective 1, when the Switch block passes its third input to its output port. Specifically, the software determines that a value of –1 for the Switch block control signal causes the block to pass its third input as the block output.

For more information about the HTML reports, see Simulink Design Verifier Reports.

Review Harness Model

To create a harness model with test cases that satisfy the test objectives in your model, in the Simulink Design Verifier Results Summary window, click Create harness model.

The software creates a harness model named ex_generate_test_cases_example_harness.

The Signal Builder block named Inputs contains the test cases. Double-click the Inputs block to see the test cases. From the Signal Builder block, you can simulate the model using the test cases and produce a model coverage report, as described in Simulate Tests and Produce a Model Coverage Report.

For more information about the harness model, see Simulink Design Verifier Harness Models.

If Analysis Generates Many Test Cases.  If you have a large model, the analysis might produce a harness model that contains a large number of test cases.

To generate fewer test cases:

  1. Set the Test suite optimization parameter to LongTestcases.

  2. Rerun the analysis.

In the LongTestcases optimization, the analysis generates fewer but longer test cases that each satisfy multiple test objectives.

Simulate Tests and Produce a Model Coverage Report

To simulate the harness model using the generated test cases in the harness model:

  1. In the harness model, double-click the Inputs block to open the Signal Builder dialog box.

  2. In the Signal Builder dialog box, click Run all .

    The software simulates the harness model using both test cases, collects model coverage information, and displays a coverage report. The coverage report indicates that the test cases record 100% decision coverage for the ex_generate_test_cases_example model.

You can also simulate the model without creating a harness model. In the Simulink Design Verifier log window, click Simulate tests and produce a model coverage report.

For more information about model coverage, see Top-Level Model Coverage Report (Simulink Coverage).

View sldvData File

The Simulink Design Verifier data file is a MAT-file that contains a structure named sldvData. This structure stores all the data that the analysis gathers and produces during the analysis. You can use the data file to conduct your own analysis or to generate a custom report.

To view the data file, click the data file name in the log window, in this example, ex_generate_test_cases_example_sldvdata.mat. When you click the file name, a copy of the sldvData object is instantiated in the MATLAB® workspace so that you can review and manipulate the data.

For more information about Simulink Design Verifier data files, see Simulink Design Verifier Data Files.

Review Analysis Results in the Results Summary Window

As long as your model remains open, you can view the results of your most recent Simulink Design Verifier analysis in the Results Summary window.

On the Design Verifier tab, in the Review Results section, click Load Earlier Results or Results Summary to view the results.

For any Simulink Design Verifier analysis, from the Results Summary window, you can perform these tasks.

TaskFor more information

Highlight the analysis results on the model.

Highlighted Results on the Model

Generate a detailed analysis report.

Simulink Design Verifier Reports

Create the harness model, or if the harness model already exists, open it.

If no test cases were generated during the analysis, this option is not available.

Simulink Design Verifier Harness Models

View the data file.

Simulink Design Verifier Data Files

View the log file.

Simulink Design Verifier Log Files

After you close your model, you can no longer view analysis results.

Customize Test Generation

You can use the Test Condition block to constrain signals in your model to certain values during the analysis.

  1. At the MATLAB command prompt, enter sldvlib to display the Simulink Design Verifier library.

  2. Open the Objectives and Constraints sublibrary.

  3. Copy the Test Condition block to your model by dragging it from the Simulink Design Verifier library to your model window.

  4. In the model window, insert the Test Condition block between the Inport and Switch blocks.

  5. Double-click the Test Condition block to access its attributes.

    The Test Condition block parameters dialog box opens.

  6. In the Values box, enter [-0.1, 0.1]. When generating test cases for this model, the analysis constrains the signal values, entering the Switch block control port to the specified range.

  7. Click OK to save your changes and close the Test Condition block parameters dialog box.

  8. Save your model as ex_generate_test_cases_with_tc_block and keep it open.

Reanalyze the Example Model

Analyze the ex_generate_test_cases_with_tc_block model with the Test Condition block. To observe how the Test Condition block affects test generation, compare the result of this analysis to the result that you obtained in Analyze Example Model.

  1. On the Design Verifier tab, click Generate Tests.

    The Simulink Design Verifier software displays a log window and begins analyzing your model to generate test cases. When the software completes the analysis, the Results Summary window displays the options for reviewing the results.

  2. In the Results Summary window, click HTML Report.

  3. To begin reviewing the report, in the Table of Contents, click Summary.

    The Summary chapter indicates that Simulink Design Verifier satisfied two test objectives in the model.

  4. In the Table of Contents, click Analysis Information. Scroll to the bottom of this chapter, to the Constraints section.

    This section lists the Test Condition block that you added to constrain the value of the Switch block control signal to the interval [–0.1, 0.1].

  5. In the Table of Contents, click Test Objectives Status.

    This table indicates that Simulink Design Verifier satisfied both test objectives for the Switch block through the two test cases generated.

  6. Under the table Test Case column, click 1.

    This section provides details about a test case that the software generated to achieve an objective in your model. This test case achieves test objective 1, when the Switch block passes its third input to its output port. Although the Test Condition block restricts the domain of input signals to the interval [–0.1, 0.1], the software determines that a value of –0.1 for the Switch block control signal satisfies this objective.

  7. To confirm that the test case achieves 100% decision coverage, open the harness model.

  8. Double-click the Inputs block to open the Signal Builder dialog box.

  9. In the Signal Builder dialog box, click Run all .

    The Simulink software simulates the harness model using both test cases, collects model coverage information, and displays a coverage report. The Summary section of the report indicates that Simulink Design Verifier generated test cases that achieve complete decision coverage for your example model.

Analyze Contradictory Models

If the analysis produces the error The model is contradictory in its current configuration, the software detected a contradiction in your model and cannot analyze the model.

You can have a contradiction if your model has Test Objective blocks with incorrect parameters. For example, a contradiction can be an objective that states that a signal must be between 0 and 5 when the signal is the constant 10.

If the software detects a contradiction, all previous results are invalidated and the software reports that some of the objectives cannot be satisfied.

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