# cconv

Modulo-n circular convolution

## Syntax

``c = cconv(a,b)``
``c = cconv(a,b,n)``

## Description

example

````c = cconv(a,b)` convolves vectors `a` and `b`.```

example

````c = cconv(a,b,n)` circularly convolves vectors `a` and `b`. `n` is the length of the resulting vector. You can also use `cconv` to compute the circular cross-correlation of two sequences.```

## Examples

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Generate two signals of different lengths. Compare their circular convolution and their linear convolution. Use the default value for `n`.

```a = [1 2 -1 1]; b = [1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1]; c = cconv(a,b); % Circular convolution cref = conv(a,b); % Linear convolution dif = norm(c-cref)```
```dif = 9.7422e-16 ```

The resulting norm is virtually zero, which shows that the two convolutions produce the same result to machine precision.

Generate two vectors and compute their modulo-4 circular convolution.

```a = [2 1 2 1]; b = [1 2 3 4]; c = cconv(a,b,4)```
```c = 1×4 14 16 14 16 ```

Generate two complex sequences. Use `cconv` to compute their circular cross-correlation. Flip and conjugate the second operand to comply with the definition of cross-correlation. Specify an output vector length of 7.

```a = [1 2 2 1]+1i; b = [1 3 4 1]-2*1i; c = cconv(a,conj(fliplr(b)),7);```

Compare the result to the cross-correlation computed using `xcorr`.

```cref = xcorr(a,b); dif = norm(c-cref)```
```dif = 3.3565e-15 ```

Generate two signals: a five-sample triangular waveform and a first-order FIR filter with response $H\left(z\right)=1-{z}^{-1}$.

`x1 = conv([1 1 1],[1 1 1])`
```x1 = 1×5 1 2 3 2 1 ```
`x2 = [-1 1]`
```x2 = 1×2 -1 1 ```

Compute their circular convolution with the default output length. The result is equivalent to the linear convolution of the two signals.

`ccnv = cconv(x1,x2)`
```ccnv = 1×6 -1.0000 -1.0000 -1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 ```
`lcnv = conv(x1,x2)`
```lcnv = 1×6 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 ```

The modulo-2 circular convolution is equivalent to splitting the linear convolution into two-element arrays and summing the arrays.

`ccn2 = cconv(x1,x2,2)`
```ccn2 = 1×2 -1 1 ```
```nl = numel(lcnv); mod2 = sum(reshape(lcnv,2,nl/2)')```
```mod2 = 1×2 -1 1 ```

Compute the modulo-3 circular convolution and compare it to the aliased linear convolution.

`ccn3 = cconv(x1,x2,3)`
```ccn3 = 1×3 0 0 0 ```
`mod3 = sum(reshape(lcnv,3,nl/3)')`
```mod3 = 1×3 0 0 0 ```

If the output length is smaller than the convolution length and does not divide it exactly, pad the convolution with zeros before adding.

```c = 5; z = zeros(c*ceil(nl/c),1); z(1:nl) = lcnv; ccnc = cconv(x1,x2,c)```
```ccnc = 1×5 0.0000 -1.0000 -1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 ```
`modc = sum(reshape(z,c,numel(z)/c)')`
```modc = 1×5 0 -1 -1 1 1 ```

If the output length is equal to or larger than the convolution length, pad the convolution and do not add.

```d = 13; z = zeros(d*ceil(nl/d),1); z(1:nl) = lcnv; ccnd = cconv(x1,x2,d)```
```ccnd = 1×13 -1.0000 -1.0000 -1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 -0.0000 -0.0000 ```
`modd = z'`
```modd = 1×13 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ```

The following example requires Parallel Computing Toolbox™ software. Refer to GPU Support by Release (Parallel Computing Toolbox) to see what GPUs are supported.

Create two signals consisting of a 1 kHz sine wave in additive white Gaussian noise. The sample rate is 10 kHz

```Fs = 1e4; t = 0:1/Fs:10-(1/Fs); x = cos(2*pi*1e3*t)+randn(size(t)); y = sin(2*pi*1e3*t)+randn(size(t));```

Put `x` and `y` on the GPU using `gpuArray`. Obtain the circular convolution using the GPU.

```x = gpuArray(x); y = gpuArray(y); cirC = cconv(x,y,length(x)+length(y)-1);```

Compare the result to the linear convolution of x and y.

```linC = conv(x,y); norm(linC-cirC,2)```
```ans = 1.4047e-08 ```

Return the circular convolution, `cirC`, to the MATLAB® workspace using `gather`.

`cirC = gather(cirC);`

## Input Arguments

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Input array, specified as vectors or `gpuArray` objects. See Run MATLAB Functions on a GPU (Parallel Computing Toolbox) for details on `gpuArray` objects. Using `cconv` with `gpuArray` objects requires Parallel Computing Toolbox™ software. Refer to GPU Support by Release (Parallel Computing Toolbox) to see what GPUs are supported.

Example: `sin(2*pi*(0:9)/10) + randn([1 10])/10` specifies a noisy sinusoid as a row vector.

Example: `gpuArray(sin(2*pi*(0:9)/10) + randn([1 10])/10)` specifies a noisy sinusoid as a `gpuArray` object.

Data Types: `single` | `double`
Complex Number Support: Yes

Convolution length, specified as a positive integer. If you do not specify `n`, then the convolution has length `length(a)+length(b)-1`.

## Output Arguments

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Circular convolution of input vectors, returned as a vector or `gpuArray`.

## Tips

For long sequences, circular convolution can be faster than linear convolution.

 Orfanidis, Sophocles J. Introduction to Signal Processing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1996, pp. 524–529.