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Inverse Radon transform



I = iradon(R,theta) reconstructs the image I from projection data in R captured at projection angles theta.

I = iradon(R,theta,interp,filter,frequencyScaling,outputSize) specifies additional parameters to use in the inverse Radon transform. You can specify any combination of the last four arguments. To omit an argument, specify the value as an empty array ([]).iradon uses default values for arguments that you omit.

[I,H] = iradon(___) also returns the frequency response of the filter, H.


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Create an image of the phantom. Display the image.

P = phantom(128); 
title('Original image')

Perform a Radon transform of the image.

R = radon(P,0:179);

Perform filtered backprojection.

I1 = iradon(R,0:179);

Perform unfiltered backprojection.

I2 = iradon(R,0:179,'linear','none');

Display the reconstructed images.

title('Filtered Backprojection')
title('Unfiltered Backprojection')

Create an image of the phantom.

P = phantom(128);

Perform a Radon transform of the image, then get the projection vector corresponding to a projection at a 45 degree angle.

R = radon(P,0:179);
r45 = R(:,46);

Perform the inverse Radon transform of this single projection vector. The iradon syntax does not allow you to do this directly, because if theta is a scalar it is treated as an increment. You can accomplish the task by passing in two copies of the projection vector and then dividing the result by 2.

I = iradon([r45 r45], [45 45])/2;

Display the result.

imshow(I, [])
title('Backprojection from 45 degrees')

Input Arguments

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Parallel beam projection data, specified as one of the following.

  • If theta is a scalar, then specify R as a numeric column vector containing the Radon transform for theta degrees.

  • If theta is a vector, then specify R as a 2-D matrix in which each column is the Radon transform for one of the angles in theta.

Data Types: single | double

Projection angles (in degrees), specified as one of the following.

numeric vectorProjection angles. There must be equal spacing between the angles.
numeric scalarIncremental angle between projections. Projections are taken at angles m*theta, where m = 0,1,2,...,size(R,2)-1.
[]Automatically set the incremental angle between projections to 180/size(R,2)

Data Types: single | double

Type of interpolation to use in the back projection, specified as one of these values. The values are listed in order of increasing accuracy and computational complexity.




Nearest-neighbor interpolation


Linear interpolation


Spline interpolation

"pchip"Shape-preserving piecewise cubic interpolation
"v5cubic"Cubic convolution used in MATLAB® 5

Data Types: char | string

Filter to use for frequency domain filtering, specified as one of these values.




Cropped Ram-Lak or ramp filter. The frequency response of this filter is | f |. Because this filter is sensitive to noise in the projections, one of the filters listed below might be preferable. These filters multiply the Ram-Lak filter by a window that de-emphasizes high frequencies.


Multiplies the Ram-Lak filter by a sinc function


Multiplies the Ram-Lak filter by a cosine function


Multiplies the Ram-Lak filter by a Hamming window


Multiplies the Ram-Lak filter by a Hann window

"None"No filtering. iradon returns unfiltered backprojection data.

Data Types: char | string

Scale factor for rescaling the frequency axis, specified as a positive number in the range (0, 1].

If frequencyScaling is less than 1, then the filter is compressed to fit into the frequency range [0, frequencyScaling], in normalized frequencies. Further, all frequencies above frequencyScaling are set to 0.

Number of rows and columns in the reconstructed image, specified as a positive integer. If you do not specify outputSize, then iradon calculates the size from the length of the projections according to:

outputSize = 2*floor(size(R,1)/(2*sqrt(2)))

If you specify outputSize, then iradon reconstructs a smaller or larger portion of the image but does not change the scaling of the data. If the projections were calculated with the radon function, then the reconstructed image might not be the same size as the original image.

Output Arguments

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Grayscale image, returned as a numeric matrix. The data type of I is the same as the data type of R.

Data Types: single | double

Frequency response of the filter, returned as a numeric vector. The data type of H is the same as the data type of R.

Data Types: single | double


iradon assumes that the center of rotation is the center point of the projections, which is defined as ceil(size(R,1)/2).

iradon uses the filtered back projection algorithm to perform the inverse Radon transform. The filter is designed directly in the frequency domain and then multiplied by the FFT of the projections. The projections are zero-padded to a power of 2 before filtering to prevent spatial domain aliasing and to speed up the FFT.


[1] Kak, A. C., and M. Slaney, Principles of Computerized Tomographic Imaging, New York, NY, IEEE Press, 1988.

Extended Capabilities

Version History

Introduced before R2006a

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