I have successfully run R13 (older than yours) on windows 10 without any obvious problems.
I would expect problems with device drivers and in particular if you need direct access to a parallel port then you will have problems. If you use the Data Acquisition toolbox then upgrading to current versions can involve rewrites, and daq only supports a small number of devices that are made by vendors other than National Instruments.
You would also have difficulty if you need to work with multimedia compressed with Indeo3 or Indeo5
Note that the Component Runtime is used for precompiled executables for which no MATLAB license is needed to execute (the people who built the executable paid Mathworks). MATLAB licenses would be required to recompile or make code changes.