I believe that the "contourcmap" function might be helpful in this case: https://www.mathworks.com/help/map/ref/contourcmap.html#bukujsg
Also, if you are looking at individual patches, the "patchesm" function might be helpful: https://www.mathworks.com/help/map/ref/patchesm.html
Furthermore, if you would like to work with worldmaps, the "geoshow" function could be useful: https://www.mathworks.com/help/map/ref/geoshow.html
The above documentation links contain examples regarding how to create a worldmap with different color settings and includes using different types of options as well depending on the use case.
I have also found a file-exchange submission that may help: https://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/28943-color-palette-tables---cpt--for-matlab
Please note that file-exchange submissions would be considered third-party submissions.