It is my understanding that you wish to know why the callback is not triggered when the axis limits are changed using the "ylim('auto')" command in MATLAB R2014b. I also understand that you wish to know if there is a workaround to achieve this.
This behavior is as expected. When MATLAB R2014b is automatically calculating the limits, the limits frequently change several times as MATLAB inspects each member of the axes and updates the limits. Allowing listeners to be triggered during the automatic calculation (even if no listener was attached) would have caused performance degradation for all users (even if they are not using listeners), so the ability to trigger listeners with automatically calculated property value changes was disabled for performance reasons.
However, in MATLAB R2014a, the callback is triggered even when the ylim mode is set to "auto". If you have this version of MATLAB you can achieve the desired behavior. There are no workarounds as of now for MATLAB R2014b. I work for Mathworks and I have forwarded this feedback to the appropriate product team.