MATLAB Add-On Class

The MATLAB® class for your library must inherit from the matlabshared.addon.LibraryBase class:

classdef MyAddon < matlabshared.addon.LibraryBase
    …
end  

Note

Use only ASCII characters for class, package, function, script, and variable names in your MATLAB class.

The matlabshared.addon.LibraryBase class includes a variety of properties and methods. The following diagram shows a typical class inheritance for your add-on:

To implement your MATLAB add-on class, you must override the following properties and method:

Depending on the design of your add-on, you may also be required to override the following property and method:

Command Identifiers

The command identifiers, typically named commandID, are 8-bit hexadecimal values. The commandID is used in the sendCommand to provide a consistent mapping to the commandHandler method in the C++ Header File.

Use the following syntax to specify a commandID property in your MATLAB class:

properties(Access = private, Constant = true)
    ADDON_OPERATION = hex2dec(cmdID)
    …
end  

The Create LCD Add-on example shows the commandIDs in the LCDAddon.m classdef file as:

properties(Access = private, Constant = true)
    LCD_CREATE     = hex2dec('00')
    LCD_INITIALIZE = hex2dec('01')
    LCD_CLEAR      = hex2dec('02')
    LCD_PRINT      = hex2dec('03')
    LCD_DELETE     = hex2dec('04')
end

Similarly, the LCDAddon.h defines the commandIDs:

#define LCD_CREATE      0x00
#define LCD_INITIALIZE  0x01
#define LCD_CLEAR       0x02
#define LCD_PRINT       0x03
#define LCD_DELETE      0x04

Note

For consistent behavior, the command identifiers in theMATLAB class must match the commandIDs used in the commandHandler method from the C++ header file.

Library Specification

The library specification defines the name of the add-on and locations of the required C++ source files and libraries. The library specification is a property set with this code:

properties(Access = protected, Constant = true)
    LibraryName = 'MyAddonFolder/MyAddon'
    DependentLibraries = {}
    LibraryHeaderFiles = {}
    CppHeaderFile = fullfile(arduinoio.FilePath(mfilename('fullpath')), 'src', 'MyAddon.h')
    CppClassName = 'MyAddon'
end

The five library specification properties must be defined as in matlabshared.addon.LibraryBase or as shown in the following table.

PropertyDescription
LibraryName

Name of your add-on library as a string. The string uses the same syntax as your add-on folder structure: <AddonFolder>/<AddonName>

DependentLibraries

Other add-on libraries required by your add-on as a cell array of strings.

LibraryHeaderFiles

Any C++ header files needed by your add-on. See LibraryBase for details on including header files.

CppHeaderFile

Full path and name of your add-on C++ header file as a string.

CppClassName

Name of the class in your C++ header file as a string.

The Create LCD Add-on sample library shows a typical naming of these properties:

properties(Access = protected, Constant = true)
    LibraryName = 'ExampleLCD/LCDAddon'
    DependentLibraries = {}
    LibraryHeaderFiles = 'LiquidCrystal/LiquidCrystal.h'
    CppHeaderFile = fullfile(arduinoio.FilePath(mfilename('fullpath')), 'src', 'LCD.h')
    CppClassName = 'LCD'
end

If your add-on has a C++ header file specified in LibraryHeaderFiles, make sure the CppClassName is not the same as the name of any of the classes defined in the header file. In this example, LCD is different from the C++ class defined in LiquidCrystal.h.

If your add-on requires I2C support, then

DependentLibraries = {'i2c'};

Constructor

The constructor for your add-on must initialize the add-on object in two ways:

  • Parent the add-on object to the Arduino® object.

  • Define the set of hardware pins used by the add-on

Here is the minimum form of the constructor:

methods

    function obj = AddonName(parentObj)            
        obj.Parent = parentObj;
    endend

Typically, the add-on constructor registers add-on resources with the parent Arduino object. Similarly, checks can also be performed to ensure that add-ons do not generate resource usage conflicts. The constructor in the Create LCD Add-on example shows how a resource can be checked and then acquired to prevent two LCD add-ons existing simultaneously:

% InputPins is user input and contains the pins that connect the LCD and the arduino
function obj = LCDAddon(parentObj,varargin)
             if(nargin ~= 7)
                 matlabshared.hwsdk.internal.localizedError('MATLAB:narginchk:notEnoughInputs');
             end  

             try
                p = inputParser;
                addParameter(p, 'RegisterSelectPin',[]);
                addParameter(p, 'EnablePin', []);
                addParameter(p, 'DataPins', []);
                parse(p, varargin{1:end});
             catch e
                 throwAsCaller(e);
             end
            obj.Parent = parentObj;            
            obj.RegisterSelectPin = p.Results.RegisterSelectPin;
            obj.EnablePin = p.Results.EnablePin;
            obj.DataPins = p.Results.DataPins;
            inputPins = [cellstr(obj.RegisterSelectPin) cellstr(obj.EnablePin) obj.DataPins];
            obj.Pins = inputPins;
            count = getResourceCount(obj.Parent,obj.ResourceOwner);
            % Since this example allows implementation of only 1 LCD
            % shield, error out if resource count is more than 0
            if count > 0
                error('You can only have 1 LCD shield');
            end 
            incrementResourceCount(obj.Parent,obj.ResourceOwner);    
            createLCD(obj,inputPins);
        end

Destructor

By default, you do not need to write a destructor for your add-on. The destructor from the matlabshared.addon.LibraryBase class is called implicitly. Add-ons that use hardware resources from the parent Arduino object or allocate memory in the C++ header must call an add-on destructor to release these resources.

Warning

Not releasing resources in the destructor can cause memory leaks and failure during the creation of a new instance of your add-on.

A destructor for your add-on class must:

  • Override the delete method of the matlabshared.addon.LibraryBase class.

  • Execute a command in your C++ commandHandler method to deallocate any memory resources used by your library.

  • Not throw an error or exception. To prevent errors or exceptions being thrown during the destructor, wrap the contents in a try-catch statement.

The destructor in the Create LCD Add-on example shows how resource can be checked and released safely:

methods(Access = protected)
        function delete(obj)
            try
                parentObj = obj.Parent;
                % Clear the pins that have been configured to the LCD shield
                inputPins = [cellstr(obj.RegisterSelectPin) cellstr(obj.EnablePin) obj.DataPins];
                for iLoop = inputPins
                    configurePinResource(parentObj,iLoop{:},obj.ResourceOwner,'Unset');
                end
                % Decrement the resource count for the LCD
                decrementResourceCount(parentObj, obj.ResourceOwner);
                cmdID = obj.LCD_DELETE;
                inputs = [];
                sendCommand(obj, obj.LibraryName, cmdID, inputs);
            catch
                % Do not throw errors on destroy.
                % This may result from an incomplete construction.
            end
        end  
    end

Resource Ownership

Your add–on can optionally specify certain hardware resources that are unique and cannot be shared. TheCreate LCD Add-on can only have a single instance since only one LCD shield can be attached to the Arduino device at a time.

Note

Explicitly defining hardware resource ownership of your add-on prevents resource acquisition and usage conflicts during runtime.

You can specify the resource ownership through the following set of properties in your add-on class:

properties(Access = private)
    ResourceOwner = 'ExampleLCD/LCDAddon';
end

See Also

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