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medicalVolume

3-D medical image voxel data and spatial referencing information

Description

A medicalVolume object stores the voxel data and spatial referencing information for the medical image volume contained in a single DICOM, NIfTI, or NRRD file, or in a directory of DICOM files. The medicalVolume object specifies the mapping between the intrinsic image coordinate system, the patient coordinate system, and the anatomical planes. The medicalVolume object and its object functions provide a standardized interface for accessing voxel data, spatial referencing, and intensity scaling information.

Creation

Description

example

medVol = medicalVolume(dirname) creates a medicalVolume object for the image volume contained in a multifile DICOM series in the directory dirname.

example

medVol = medicalVolume(filenames) creates a medicalVolume object for the image volume stored in the single DICOM, NIfTI, or NRRD file or list of DICOM files specified by filenames.

example

medVol = medicalVolume(sourceTable) creates a medicalVolume object for the image volume listed in sourceTable. The table must contain only one row that specifies the metadata for a DICOM volume.

example

medVol = medicalVolume(sourceTable,rowname) creates a medicalVolume object for the image volume listed in the row rowname of sourceTable. Use this syntax to specify one row of a multirow table by name or by numeric index.

example

medVol = medicalVolume(imds) creates a medicalVolume object for the image volume specified by the image datastore object imds.

example

medVol = medicalVolume(voxels,VolumeGeometry) creates a medicalVolume by directly specifying the Voxels and VolumeGeometry properties.

Input Arguments

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Name of the directory containing the medical image volume data, specified as a string scalar or a character vector. Specify dirname as the name of a directory containing multiple DICOM files corresponding to one image volume.

Name of the file or files containing the medical image volume data, specified as a string scalar, character vector, or string array. Specify filenames as a single DICOM, NIfTI, or NRRD file or as a list of DICOM files corresponding to one image volume.

Collection of DICOM file metadata, specified as a table returned by the dicomCollection function.

Name or index of table row, specified as a string scalar, character vector, or positive integer. Specify rowname as a string scalar or character vector to specify a row of sourceTable by name. Specify rowname as a positive integer to specify a row by its numeric index.

Datastore specifying a list of DICOM files containing medical image volume data, specified as an ImageDataStore object. The list of files must correspond to one medical image volume.

Properties

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Image voxel values, specified as an m-by-n-by-p numeric array or an N-D numeric array. The first three dimensions of Voxels correspond to the spatial dimensions of the patient coordinate system. For DICOM files, medicalVolume rescales the intensity values using the RescaleIntercept and RescaleSlope metadata attributes, if they are present in the file.

Data Types: single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | int64 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | uint64 | logical

Spatial referencing information, specified as a medicalref3d object. The coordinates and distances specified by VolumeGeometry are in the units specified by the SpatialUnits property, if available in the file metadata.

Real-world spatial units, specified as a string scalar or a character vector. If the data source is a DICOM file, then the SpatialUnits value is "mm" (millimeters). If the data source is a NIfTI or NRRD file, the object extracts the spatial units from the SpaceUnits or spaceunits metadata attribute, respectively, if present in the file.

Data Types: string

This property is read-only.

Distances between voxel centers in each dimension, specified as a 1-by-3 numeric vector. The values of VoxelSpacing are in the units specified by the SpatialUnits property. If VolumeGeometry.IsAffine is false, then the object calculates the spacing for each dimension as the average spacing across all slices.

Data Types: double

This property is read-only.

Slice plane with the greatest spatial resolution, specified as one of these values:

  • "coronal" — Coronal plane.

  • "sagittal" — Sagittal plane.

  • "transverse" — Transverse plane.

  • "mixed" — Image volume slices are not parallel. This value occurs when the IsMixed property of the VolumeGeometry object is true.

  • "oblique" — Image slices are not aligned with the anatomical axes.

  • "unknown" — Mapping between image coordinate system and anatomical axes is unknown. This value occurs when the PatientCoordinateSystem property of the VolumeGeometry object is "unknown".

Data Types: string

This property is read-only.

Number of slices in the coronal direction, specified as a numeric scalar or empty array. NumCoronalSlices is empty in these cases:

  • PatientCoordinateSystem property of the VolumeGeometry object is "unknown".

  • Image volume is oblique.

  • Image volume contains a temporal dimension with multiple slices at each spatial location.

Data Types: double

This property is read-only.

Number of slices in the sagittal direction, specified as a numeric scalar or empty array. NumCoronalSlices is empty in these cases:

  • PatientCoordinateSystem property of the VolumeGeometry object is "unknown".

  • Image volume is oblique.

  • Image volume contains a temporal dimension with multiple slices at each spatial location.

Data Types: double

This property is read-only.

Number of slices in the transverse direction, specified as a numeric scalar or empty array. NumCoronalSlices is empty in these cases:

  • PatientCoordinateSystem property of the VolumeGeometry object is "unknown".

  • Image volume is oblique.

  • Image volume contains a temporal dimension with multiple slices at each spatial location.

Data Types: double

This property is read-only.

Mapping between image data dimensions and anatomical planes, specified as a 1-by-3 string array. If the spatial referencing information is available in the source file, PlaneMapping contains the strings "transverse", "coronal", and "saggital". For example, if the first element of PlaneMapping is "coronal", then moving along the first dimension of Voxels corresponds to moving between slices in the coronal plane.

If the PatientCoordinateSystem property of the VolumeGeometry object is "unknown", or if the volume is oblique, the values of PlaneMapping are "unknown" or "oblique", respectively.

Example: ["transverse","coronal","sagittal"]

Data Types: string

This property is read-only.

Unit vector normal to the first slice of the image volume, specified as a 1-by-3 numeric vector. The first slice of the volume corresponds to the points stored in Voxels(:,:,1).

Data Types: double

This property is read-only.

Imaging modality used to capture the image volume data, specified as a string scalar. The modality is extracted from the file metadata, if present. Common values include, but are not limited to, "CT" for computed tomography, "MR" for magnetic resonance, "NM" for nuclear medicine, and "US" for ultrasound. If the modality is not specified in the file metadata, the default value is "unknown".

Data Types: string

This property is read-only.

Center of the display range window for each slice, specified as a p-by-1 numeric vector, where p is the number of slices in the image volume along the third dimension. The object extracts the WindowCenters property value from the file metadata, if available. If the display window metadata is not available, then WindowCenters is empty.

Data Types: double

This property is read-only.

Width of display window of each slice, specified as a p-by-1 numeric vector, where p is the number of slices in the image volume along the third dimension. The object extracts the WindowWidths property value from the file metadata, if available. If the display window metadata is not available, then WindowWidths is empty.

Data Types: double

Object Functions

extractSliceExtract voxels and spatial details for one slice of medical volume
replaceSliceReplace voxel values for one slice of medical volume
resampleResample medical image volume in different patient coordinate system
sliceCornersExtract coordinates of corner voxels for one slice of medical volume
sliceLimitsExtract X-, Y-, Z-limits for one slice of medical volume
writeWrite affine medical volume data to NIfTI file

Examples

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Create a medical volume object using a chest CT volume saved as a directory of DICOM files. The volume is part of a data set containing three CT volumes. The size of the entire data set is approximately 81 MB. Download the data set from the MathWorks® website, then unzip the folder.

zipFile = matlab.internal.examples.downloadSupportFile("medical","MedicalVolumeDICOMData.zip");
filepath = fileparts(zipFile);
unzip(zipFile,filepath)

Specify the directory of DICOM files for the first CT volume in the data set.

dataFolder = fullfile(filepath,"MedicalVolumeDICOMData/LungCT01"); 

Create a medical volume object for the CT volume.

medVol = medicalVolume(dataFolder)
medVol = 
  medicalVolume with properties:

                 Voxels: [512×512×88 int16]
         VolumeGeometry: [1×1 medicalref3d]
           SpatialUnits: "mm"
            Orientation: "transverse"
           VoxelSpacing: [0.7285 0.7285 2.5000]
           NormalVector: [0 0 1]
       NumCoronalSlices: 512
      NumSagittalSlices: 512
    NumTransverseSlices: 88
           PlaneMapping: ["sagittal"    "coronal"    "transverse"]
               Modality: "CT"
          WindowCenters: [88×1 double]
           WindowWidths: [88×1 double]

Create a medical volume object using a CT chest volume from the Medical Segmentation Decathlon data set [1]. Download the MedicalVolumNIfTIData.zip file from the MathWorks website, then unzip the file. The file contains two CT chest volumes and corresponding label images, stored in the NIfTI file format. The size of the data file is approximately 76 MB.

zipFile = matlab.internal.examples.downloadSupportFile("medical","MedicalVolumeNIfTIData.zip");
filepath = fileparts(zipFile);
unzip(zipFile,filepath)
dataFolder = fullfile(filepath,"MedicalVolumeNIfTIData");

Specify the file name of the first CT volume.

filePath = fullfile(dataFolder,"lung_027.nii.gz");

Create a medical volume object for the CT volume.

medVol = medicalVolume(filePath)
medVol = 
  medicalVolume with properties:

                 Voxels: [512×512×264 single]
         VolumeGeometry: [1×1 medicalref3d]
           SpatialUnits: "mm"
            Orientation: "transverse"
           VoxelSpacing: [0.8594 0.8594 1.2453]
           NormalVector: [0 0 -1]
       NumCoronalSlices: 512
      NumSagittalSlices: 512
    NumTransverseSlices: 264
           PlaneMapping: ["sagittal"    "coronal"    "transverse"]
               Modality: "unknown"
          WindowCenters: 0
           WindowWidths: 0

[1] Medical Segmentation Decathlon. "Lung." Tasks. Accessed May 10, 2018. http://medicaldecathlon.com/.

The Medical Segmentation Decathlon data set is provided under the CC-BY-SA 4.0 license. All warranties and representations are disclaimed. See the license for details.

Create a medical volume object using a chest CT volume saved as a directory of DICOM files. The volume is part of a data set containing three CT volumes. The size of the entire data set is approximately 81 MB. Download the data set from the MathWorks website, then unzip the folder.

zipFile = matlab.internal.examples.downloadSupportFile("medical","MedicalVolumeDICOMData.zip");
filepath = fileparts(zipFile);
unzip(zipFile,filepath)

Specify the directory of DICOM files for the first CT volume in the data set.

dataFolder = fullfile(filepath,"MedicalVolumeDICOMData/LungCT01");

Gather the details about the DICOM files in the dataFolder directory into a table by using the dicomCollection function. The files belong to one CT volume series, so the table has one row.

sourceTable = dicomCollection(dataFolder);

Create a medical volume object for the CT volume by specifying the single-row DICOM collection table.

medVol = medicalVolume(sourceTable)
medVol = 
  medicalVolume with properties:

                 Voxels: [512×512×88 int16]
         VolumeGeometry: [1×1 medicalref3d]
           SpatialUnits: "mm"
            Orientation: "transverse"
           VoxelSpacing: [0.7285 0.7285 2.5000]
           NormalVector: [0 0 1]
       NumCoronalSlices: 512
      NumSagittalSlices: 512
    NumTransverseSlices: 88
           PlaneMapping: ["sagittal"    "coronal"    "transverse"]
               Modality: "CT"
          WindowCenters: [88×1 double]
           WindowWidths: [88×1 double]

Create a medical volume object using a data set containing three chest CT scans. Each CT scan is saved as a directory of DICOM files. The size of the data set is approximately 81 MB. Download the data set from the MathWorks website, then unzip the folder.

zipFile = matlab.internal.examples.downloadSupportFile("medical","MedicalVolumeDICOMData.zip");
filepath = fileparts(zipFile);
unzip(zipFile,filepath)
dataFolder = fullfile(filepath,"MedicalVolumeDICOMData");

Gather the details about the DICOM files in the dataFolder directory into a table by using the dicomCollection function. The table contains three rows, each corresponding to one of three CT DICOM series.

sourceTable = dicomCollection(dataFolder);

Create a medical volume object for the second CT volume by specifying the DICOM collection table and a numeric row index.

medVol = medicalVolume(sourceTable,2)
medVol = 
  medicalVolume with properties:

                 Voxels: [512×512×88 int16]
         VolumeGeometry: [1×1 medicalref3d]
           SpatialUnits: "mm"
            Orientation: "transverse"
           VoxelSpacing: [0.7617 0.7617 2.5000]
           NormalVector: [0 0 1]
       NumCoronalSlices: 512
      NumSagittalSlices: 512
    NumTransverseSlices: 88
           PlaneMapping: ["sagittal"    "coronal"    "transverse"]
               Modality: "CT"
          WindowCenters: [88×1 double]
           WindowWidths: [88×1 double]

Create a medical volume object using a chest CT volume saved as a directory of DICOM files. The volume is part of a data set containing three CT volumes. The size of the entire data set is approximately 81 MB. Download the data set from the MathWorks website, then unzip the folder.

zipFile = matlab.internal.examples.downloadSupportFile("medical","MedicalVolumeDICOMData.zip");
filepath = fileparts(zipFile);
unzip(zipFile,filepath)

Specify the directory of DICOM files for the first CT volume in the data set.

dataFolder = fullfile(filepath,"MedicalVolumeDICOMData/LungCT01");

Create an image datastore containing the DICOM files in the dataFolder directory. Specify a custom read function to read the DICOM files.

dicomds = imageDatastore(dataFolder, ... 
    FileExtensions=".dcm",ReadFcn=@(x) dicomread(x));

Create a medical volume object for the CT volume.

medVol = medicalVolume(dicomds)
medVol = 
  medicalVolume with properties:

                 Voxels: [512×512×88 int16]
         VolumeGeometry: [1×1 medicalref3d]
           SpatialUnits: "mm"
            Orientation: "transverse"
           VoxelSpacing: [0.7285 0.7285 2.5000]
           NormalVector: [0 0 1]
       NumCoronalSlices: 512
      NumSagittalSlices: 512
    NumTransverseSlices: 88
           PlaneMapping: ["sagittal"    "coronal"    "transverse"]
               Modality: "CT"
          WindowCenters: [88×1 double]
           WindowWidths: [88×1 double]

Create a medical volume object using a chest CT volume saved as a directory of DICOM files. The volume is part of a data set containing three CT volumes. The size of the entire data set is approximately 81 MB. Download the data set from the MathWorks website, then unzip the folder.

zipFile = matlab.internal.examples.downloadSupportFile("medical","MedicalVolumeDICOMData.zip");
filepath = fileparts(zipFile);
unzip(zipFile,filepath)

Specify the directory of DICOM files for the first CT volume in the data set.

dataFolder = fullfile(filepath,"MedicalVolumeDICOMData/LungCT01"); 

Create a medical volume object for the CT volume.

medVol = medicalVolume(dataFolder);

The Voxels property contains the intensity values of each voxel. The VolumeGeometry property contains a medicalref3d object defining the spatial referencing for the image volume.

V = medVol.Voxels;
R = medVol.VolumeGeometry;

Modify the voxel data by applying a 3-D Gaussian filter.

sigma = 2;
filterV = imgaussfilt3(V,sigma);

Create a new medicalVolume object that contains the smoothed voxel values. To maintain the same spatial referencing as the original volume, specify the original medicalref3d object R.

medVolFiltered = medicalVolume(filterV,R);

Version History

Introduced in R2022b