# tf2ca

Transfer function to coupled allpass

## Syntax

```[d1,d2] = tf2ca(b,a) [d1,d2] = tf2ca(b,a) [d1,d2,beta] = tf2ca(b,a) ```

## Description

`[d1,d2] = tf2ca(b,a)` where `b` is a real, symmetric vector of numerator coefficients and `a` is a real vector of denominator coefficients, corresponding to a stable digital filter, returns real vectors `d1` and `d2` containing the denominator coefficients of the allpass filters H1(z) and H2(z) such that

`$H\left(z\right)=\frac{B\left(z\right)}{A\left(z\right)}=\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)\left[H1\left(z\right)+H2\left(z\right)\right]$`

representing a coupled allpass decomposition.

`[d1,d2] = tf2ca(b,a)` where `b` is a real, antisymmetric vector of numerator coefficients and `a` is a real vector of denominator coefficients, corresponding to a stable digital filter, returns real vectors `d1` and `d2` containing the denominator coefficients of the allpass filters H1(z) and H2(z) such that

`$H\left(z\right)=\frac{B\left(z\right)}{A\left(z\right)}=\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)\left[H1\left(z\right)-H2\left(z\right)\right]$`

In some cases, the decomposition is not possible with real H1(z) and H2(z). In those cases a generalized coupled allpass decomposition may be possible, as described in the following syntax.

`[d1,d2,beta] = tf2ca(b,a)` returns complex vectors `d1` and `d2` containing the denominator coefficients of the allpass filters H1(z) and H2(z), and a complex scalar `beta`, satisfying |`beta`| = 1, such that

`$H\left(z\right)=\frac{B\left(z\right)}{A\left(z\right)}=\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)\left[\overline{\beta }\cdot H1\left(z\right)+\beta \cdot H2\left(z\right)\right]$`

representing the generalized allpass decomposition.

In the above equations, H1(z) and H2(z) are real or complex allpass IIR filters given by

`$H1\left(z\right)=\frac{fliplr\left(\overline{\left(D1\left(z\right)\right)}\right)}{D1\left(z\right)},H2\left(1\right)\left(z\right)=\frac{fliplr\left(\overline{\left(D2\left(1\right)\left(z\right)}\right)\right)}{D2\left(1\right)\left(z\right)}$`

where D1(z) and D2(z) are polynomials whose coefficients are given by `d1` and `d2`.

### Note

A coupled allpass decomposition is not always possible. Nevertheless, Butterworth, Chebyshev, and Elliptic IIR filters, among others, can be factored in this manner. For details, refer to Signal Processing Toolbox™ User's Guide.

## Examples

```[b,a]=cheby1(9,.5,.4); [d1,d2]=tf2ca(b,a); % TF2CA returns denominators of the allpass. num = 0.5*conv(fliplr(d1),d2)+0.5*conv(fliplr(d2),d1); den = conv(d1,d2); % Reconstruct numerator and denonimator. MaxDiff=max([max(b-num),max(a-den)]); % Compare original and reconstructed % numerator and denominators.```