The problem is caused by changes in NVIDIA drivers 361.xx and newer and MATLAB reliance on driver behavior outside standard Linux OpenGL ABI (thus it's mainly MathWorks problem). These changes are described here . I could solve the problem by replacing the libGL.so.1.0.0 driver library from the official NVIDIA binary driver installer. First check the version of the driver used in the system, e.g. using nvidia-smi utility. Download the driver https://www.geforce.com/drivers. Then unpack the downloaded driver installer using the --extract-only installer command line switch. Finally replace the installed libGL.so.1.0.0 library file with the libGL.so.$VERSION file from the unpacked installer (the file must be renamed to libGL.so.1.0.0).
I already lost hope that the MathWorks will fix anytime soon this two years old bug.