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System object: phased.CustomMicrophoneElement
Package: phased

Directivity of custom microphone element


D = directivity(H,FREQ,ANGLE)


D = directivity(H,FREQ,ANGLE) returns the Directivity (dBi) of a custom microphone element, H, at frequencies specified by FREQ and in direction angles specified by ANGLE.

Input Arguments

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Custom microphone element specified as a phased.CustomMicrophoneElement System object.

Example: H = phased.CustomMicrophoneElement;

Frequencies for computing directivity and patterns, specified as a positive scalar or 1-by-L real-valued row vector. Frequency units are in hertz.

  • For an antenna, microphone, or sonar hydrophone or projector element, FREQ must lie within the range of values specified by the FrequencyRange or FrequencyVector property of the element. Otherwise, the element produces no response and the directivity is returned as –Inf. Most elements use the FrequencyRange property except for phased.CustomAntennaElement and phased.CustomMicrophoneElement, which use the FrequencyVector property.

  • For an array of elements, FREQ must lie within the frequency range of the elements that make up the array. Otherwise, the array produces no response and the directivity is returned as –Inf.

Example: [1e8 2e6]

Data Types: double

Angles for computing directivity, specified as a 1-by-M real-valued row vector or a 2-by-M real-valued matrix, where M is the number of angular directions. Angle units are in degrees. If ANGLE is a 2-by-M matrix, then each column specifies a direction in azimuth and elevation, [az;el]. The azimuth angle must lie between –180° and 180°. The elevation angle must lie between –90° and 90°.

If ANGLE is a 1-by-M vector, then each entry represents an azimuth angle, with the elevation angle assumed to be zero.

The azimuth angle is the angle between the x-axis and the projection of the direction vector onto the xy plane. This angle is positive when measured from the x-axis toward the y-axis. The elevation angle is the angle between the direction vector and xy plane. This angle is positive when measured towards the z-axis. See Azimuth and Elevation Angles.

Example: [45 60; 0 10]

Data Types: double

Output Arguments

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Directivity, returned as an M-by-L matrix. Each row corresponds to one of the M angles specified by ANGLE. Each column corresponds to one of the L frequency values specified in FREQ. Directivity units are in dBi where dBi is defined as the gain of an element relative to an isotropic radiator.


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Compute the directivity of a custom microphone element. Create a custom cardioid microphone, and plot the microphone's response at 700 Hz for elevations between -90 and +90 degrees.

Define the pattern for the custom microphone element. The System object's PolarPatternAngles property has default value of [-180:180] degrees.

myAnt = phased.CustomMicrophoneElement;
myAnt.PolarPatternFrequencies = [500 1000];
myAnt.PolarPattern = mag2db([...

Calculate the directivity as a function of elevation at zero degrees azimuth.

elev = [-90:5:90];
azm = zeros(size(elev));
ang = [azm;elev];
freq = 700;
d = directivity(myAnt,freq,ang);
xlabel('Elevation (deg)')
ylabel('Directivity (dBi)')

Figure contains an axes object. The axes object contains an object of type line.

The directivity is maximum at 0 elevation.

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