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writeall

Write datastore to files

Description

example

writeall(ds,outputLocation) writes the data from the input datastore ds to output files at the location specified in outputLocation. The number of output files is the same as the number of files referenced by the datastore.

example

writeall(ds,outputLocation,Name,Value) writes data with additional options specified by one or more name-value pair arguments. For example, you can specify 'OutputType' and a file extension such as 'csv' to specify the type of files that writeall creates.

Examples

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Write a datastore to disk, and then create a new datastore for the written files. This process is useful for saving your work or sharing a datastore with a colleague.

Create a datastore for the airlinesmall.csv data set, treating 'NA' values as missing data. Select only the Year, Month, and Carrier variables.

ds = datastore('airlinesmall.csv');
ds.TreatAsMissing = 'NA';
ds.SelectedVariableNames = {'Month','Year','UniqueCarrier'};

Preview the datastore.

preview(ds)
ans=8×3 table
    Month    Year    UniqueCarrier
    _____    ____    _____________

     10      1987       {'PS'}    
     10      1987       {'PS'}    
     10      1987       {'PS'}    
     10      1987       {'PS'}    
     10      1987       {'PS'}    
     10      1987       {'PS'}    
     10      1987       {'PS'}    
     10      1987       {'PS'}    

Save this datastore to a new folder named ExampleData on the C:\ disk. (You can specify a different write location, especially if you are not using a Windows® computer.) Specify 'FolderLayout' as 'flatten' to put the datastore files directly in the target folder, without creating subfolders.

location = 'C:\ExampleData';
writeall(ds,location,'Folderlayout','flatten')

Clear ds from your working directory. To recover the datastore from disk, create a new datastore that references the same folder where the data was written.

clear ds
ds2 = datastore(location);

When writing a datastore to files, you can choose to duplicate or flatten the folder structure by setting the 'FolderLayout' parameter. Create an image datastore from an input location and then write the datastore out to files. Next, write the files at the output location by duplicating the folder layout. Finally, write the files as a flat list to the output location.

Create an image datastore from the location 'C:\input\', which contains some images of cars and trains:

imds = imageDatastore('C:\input\','IncludeSubfolders',true);

This folder structure is just an example. You can try the functionality with a folder structure on your machine that contains image files.

Examine the Folders property of the input datastore, which contains the fully qualified path to the input dataset.

imds.Folders
ans =

  1×1 cell array

    {'C:\input\'}

Write the datastore to the output location 'C:\output\'. The default value of the 'FolderLayout' parameter is 'duplicate'. Therefore, the writeall function duplicates all the folders contained in the Folders property of the input datastore and then writes the files to the corresponding output folders.

writeall(imds,'C:\output\');

Now, write the files from the datastore to output location 'C:\output\' as a flat list by setting 'FolderLayout' to 'flatten'. In this instance, the writeall function does not preserve the input folder layout and instead writes all the files to a flat output location.

writeall(imds,'C:\output\','FolderLayout','flatten');

For more information, see FolderLayout.

You can use the FilenamePrefix and FilenameSuffix parameters to add text to the beginning or end of the output file names. Create an image datastore from an input location. Write the datastore out to files and append text to the beginning of the file names. Then write the datastore again and append text to the end of the file names.

Create an image datastore from the location 'C:\input\', which contains some images of cars and trains:

imds = imageDatastore('C:\input\','IncludeSubfolders',true);

This folder structure is just an example. You can try the functionality with a folder structure on your machine that contains image files.

Now, write the files to an output location. Specify the value of FilenamePrefix as 'png_' to append that text to the beginning of each output file name.

writeall(imds,'C:\output\','FilenamePrefix','png_');

Write the files to a different output location. Specify the value of FilenameSuffix as '_image' to append that text to the end of each output file name.

writeall(imds,'C:\output2\','FilenameSuffix','_image');

Input Arguments

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Input datastore. You can use these datastores as input to writeall:

You also can use these datastores with writeall if you supply either the 'OutputFormat' or 'WriteFcn' name-value pair:

Folder location to write data, specified as a character vector or string scalar. outputLocation can specify a full or relative path.

Example: outputLocation = '../../dir/data'

Example: outputLocation = "C:\Users\MyName\Desktop"

Data Types: char | string

Name-Value Pair Arguments

Specify optional comma-separated pairs of Name,Value arguments. Name is the argument name and Value is the corresponding value. Name must appear inside quotes. You can specify several name and value pair arguments in any order as Name1,Value1,...,NameN,ValueN.

Example: writeall(ds,outputLocation,'FolderLayout','flatten')
General Options

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Output file format, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'OutputFormat' and a character vector or string scalar.

Based on the type of the input datastore ds, select one of these values for the output files. You can select any tabular output format for any of the tabular datastores listed below.

Input Datastore

Output Format

TabulartextDatastore, SpreadsheetDatastore, ParquetDatastore'txt', 'csv', 'xlsx', 'xls', 'parquet', or 'parq'
ImageDatastore'png', 'jpg', 'jpeg', 'tif', or 'tiff'
AudioDatastore'wav', 'ogg', 'flac', 'mp4', or 'm4a'
FileDatastore, TransformedDatastore, CombinedDatastoreAll output formats are supported.

For some output formats, there are additional name-value pairs that you can use to refine the writing operation.

Output FormatName-Value Pairs

jpeg, jpg

'Quality'

wav, flac

'BitsPerSample'

mp4, m4a

'BitRate'

txt, csv

'WriteVariableNames'

'Delimiter'

'Encoding'

'QuoteStrings'

xls, xlsx

'Sheet'

Data Types: char | string

Layout of files in output folder, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'FolderLayout' and either 'duplicate' or 'flatten'.

  • 'duplicate' — The writeall function replicates the folder structure contained within the input data location to the specified output location. The input data location contains the Folders property of the input datastore.

  • 'flatten' — The writeall function writes all the files from the input to the specified output folder without any subfolders.

Data Types: char | string

Prefix to file name, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'FilenamePrefix' and a character vector or string scalar.

The writeall function adds the specified prefix to the output file names. For example, this code adds today’s date to the beginning of all output file names from the datastore:

prefixText = string(datetime('today'))
writeall(imds,'C:\myFolder','FilenamePrefix',prefixText);

Data Types: char | string

Suffix to file name, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'FilenameSuffix' and a character vector or string scalar.

The writeall function adds the specified suffix to the output file names. For example, this code adds the descriptive text 'jpeg_70per' to the end of all output file names from the datastore:

writeall(imds,'C:\myFolder','FilenameSuffix','jpeg_70per');

Data Types: char | string

Indicator to write in parallel, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'UseParallel' and either false or true (0 or 1).

By default writeall writes in serial. If you set UseParallel to true, then writeall divides the writing operations into separate groups and runs the groups in parallel if:

  • Parallel Computing Toolbox™ is installed.

  • An open parallel pool exists or automatic pool creation is enabled in the Parallel Preferences.

Otherwise, writeall writes in serial regardless of the value for UseParallel.

Note

Parallel writing is not supported for CombinedDatastore objects or datastores resulting from transform applied to a CombinedDatastore.

Data Types: logical

Custom writing function, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'WriteFcn' and a function handle. The specified function is responsible for creating the output files.

You can use the 'WriteFcn' name-value pair argument to write data in a variety of formats, even if writeall does not directly support the output format.

Functional Signature

The custom writing function must accept at least three input arguments, data, writeInfo, and outputType:

function myWriteFcn(data,writeInfo,outputType)
The function can also accept additional inputs, such as name-value pairs, after the first three required inputs.

  • data contains the output of the read method operating on the datastore.

  • writeInfo is an object of type matlab.io.datastore.WriteInfo with fields listed in the table.

    FieldDescriptionType
    ReadInfoThe second output of the read methodstruct
    SuggestedOutputNameA fully qualified, globally unique file name that meets the location and naming requirementsstring
    LocationThe location argument passed to datastore writestring
  • outputType is the output format to be written to, for example "txt" or "csv".

Example Function

A writing function that writes parquet files from a datastore is:

function myParquetWriteFcn(data, writeInfo, outputType)
if strcmp(outputType,"parquet")
  parquetwrite(writeInfo.SuggestedOutputName,data)
end
end
To invoke myParquetWriteFcn as the writing function for a datastore ds, use these commands:
ds = parquetDatastore(location);
outputLocation = 'C:/tmp/MyData';
writeall(ds,outputLocation,'WriteFcn',@myParquetWriteFcn);

Data Types: function_handle

Options for jpeg or jpg Output

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Quality of the JPEG-compressed file, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Quality' and a scalar in the range [0,100], where 0 is lower quality and higher compression, and 100 is higher quality and lower compression.

Example: 'Quality',25

Options for wav or flac Output

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Number of output bits per sample, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'BitsPerSample' and 8, 16, 24, 32, or 64.

For FLAC files, only 8, 16, or 24 bits per sample are supported.

Example: 'BitsPerSample',32

Options for mp4 or m4a Output

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Number of kilobits per second (kbit/s) used for compressed audio files, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'BitRate' and 64, 96, 128, 160, 192, 256, or 320. On Windows® 7 or later, the only valid values are: 96, 128, 160, and 192.

In general, a larger BitRate value results in higher compression quality.

Example: 'BitRate',96

Options for txt or csv Output

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Indicator for writing variable names as column headings, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'WriteVariableNames' and either true or false.

Indicator

Behavior

true

The writing function includes variable names as the column headings of the output. This is the default behavior.

false

The writing function does not include variable names in the output.

Field delimiter character, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Delimiter' and a character vector or string scalar containing one of these specifiers:

Specifier

Field Delimiter

','

'comma'

Comma. This is the default behavior.

' '

'space'

Space

'\t'

'tab'

Tab

';'

'semi'

Semicolon

'|'

'bar'

Vertical bar

You can use the 'Delimiter' name-value pair only for delimited text files.

Example: 'Delimiter','space'

Data Types: char | string

Character encoding scheme associated with the file, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Encoding' and 'system' or a standard character encoding scheme name like one of the values in this table. When you do not specify any encoding or specify encoding as 'system', the writing function uses your system default encoding to write the file.

'Big5'

'ISO-8859-1'

'windows-874'

'Big5-HKSCS'

'ISO-8859-2'

'windows-949'

'CP949'

'ISO-8859-3'

'windows-1250'

'EUC-KR'

'ISO-8859-4'

'windows-1251'

'EUC-JP'

'ISO-8859-5'

'windows-1252'

'EUC-TW'

'ISO-8859-6'

'windows-1253'

'GB18030'

'ISO-8859-7'

'windows-1254'

'GB2312'

'ISO-8859-8'

'windows-1255'

'GBK'

'ISO-8859-9'

'windows-1256'

'IBM866'

'ISO-8859-11'

'windows-1257'

'KOI8-R'

'ISO-8859-13'

'windows-1258'

'KOI8-U'

'ISO-8859-15'

'US-ASCII'

 

'Macintosh'

'UTF-8'

 

'Shift_JIS'

 

Example: 'UTF-8'

Data Types: char | string

Indicator for writing quoted text, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'QuoteStrings' and either false or true. If 'QuoteStrings' is true, then the writing function encloses the text in double quotation marks and replaces any double-quote characters that appear as part of that text with two double-quote characters.

You can use the 'QuoteStrings' name-value pair only with delimited text files.

Options for xls or xlsx Output

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Worksheet to write to, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Sheet' and a character vector or a string scalar containing the worksheet name or a positive integer indicating the worksheet index. The worksheet name cannot contain a colon (:). To determine the names of sheets in a spreadsheet file, use sheets = sheetnames(filename). For more information, see sheetnames.

Specify the worksheet to write to by name or index:

  • name — If the specified sheet name does not exist in the file, then the writing function adds a new sheet at the end of the worksheet collection.

  • index — If the specified sheet index is an index larger than the number of worksheets, then the writing function appends empty sheets until the number of worksheets in the workbook equals the sheet index. The writing function also generates a warning indicating that it has added a new worksheet.

You can use the 'Sheet' name-value pair only with spreadsheet files.

Example: 'Sheet',2

Example: 'Sheet', 'MySheetName'

Data Types: char | string | single | double | int8 | int16 | int32 | int64 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | uint64

Extended Capabilities

Introduced in R2020a