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Generate Reentrant C Code from MATLAB Code

About This Tutorial

Learning Objectives

This tutorial shows you how to:

  • Generate reentrant code from MATLAB® code that does not use persistent or global data.

  • Automatically generate C code from your MATLAB code.

  • Define function input properties at the command line.

  • Specify code generation properties.

  • Generate a code generation report that you can use to view and debug your MATLAB code.

Note

This example runs on Windows® only.

Prerequisites

To complete this example, install the following products:

  • MATLAB

  • MATLAB Coder™

  • C compiler

    MATLAB Coder locates and uses a supported installed compiler. For the current list of supported compilers, see Supported and Compatible Compilers on the MathWorks® website.

    You can use mex -setup to change the default compiler. See Change Default Compiler.

Required Files

TypeNameDescription
Function codematrix_exp.mMATLAB function that computes matrix exponential of the input matrix using Taylor series and returns the computed output.
C main functionmain.c Calls the reentrant code.

Copying Files Locally

Copy the tutorial files to a local working folder.

  1. Create a local working folder, for example, c:\coder\work.

  2. Change to the matlabroot\help\toolbox\coder\examples folder. At the MATLAB command prompt, enter:

    cd(fullfile(docroot, 'toolbox', 'coder', 'examples'))
    

  3. Copy the reentrant_win folder to your local working folder.

    Your work folder now contains the files for the tutorial.

  4. Set your MATLAB current folder to the work folder that contains your files for this tutorial. At the MATLAB command prompt, enter:

    cd work

    work is the full path of the work folder containing your files.

About the Example

This example requires libraries that are specific to the Microsoft® Windows operating system and, therefore, runs only on Windows platforms. It is a simple, multithreaded example that does not use persistent or global data. Two threads call the MATLAB function matrix_exp with different sets of input data.

 Contents of matrix_exp.m

When you generate reusable, reentrant code, MATLAB Coder supports dynamic allocation of:

  • Function variables that are too large for the stack

  • Persistent variables

  • Global variables

MATLAB Coder generates a header file, primary_function_name_types.h, that you must include when using the generated code. This header file contains the following structures:

  • primary_function_nameStackData

    Contains the user allocated memory. Pass a pointer to this structure as the first parameter to functions that use it:

    • Directly (the function uses a field in the structure)

    • Indirectly (the function passes the structure to a called function)

    If the algorithm uses persistent or global data, the primary_function_nameStackData structure also contains a pointer to the primary_function_namePersistentData structure. If you include this pointer, you have to pass only one parameter to each calling function.

  • primary_function_namePersistentData

    If your algorithm uses persistent or global variables, MATLAB Coder provides a separate structure for them. The memory allocation structure contains a pointer to this persistent data structure. Because you have a separate structure for persistent and global variables, you can allocate memory for these variables once and share them with all threads. However, if the threads do not communicate, you can allocate memory for these variables per thread.

Providing a C main Function

To call the reentrant code, provide a main function that:

  • Includes the generated header file matrix_exp.h. This file includes the generated header file, matrix_exp_types.h.

  • For each thread, allocates memory for stack data.

  • Calls the matrix_exp_initialize housekeeping function. For more information, see Deploy Generated Code.

  • Calls matrix_exp.

  • Calls matrix_exp_terminate.

  • Frees up the for stack data memory.

 Contents of main.c

Configuring Build Parameters

You can enable generation of reentrant code using a code generation configuration object.

  1. Create a configuration object.

    cfg = coder.config('exe');

  2. Enable reentrant code generation.

    cfg.MultiInstanceCode = true;

Generating the C Code

Call the codegen function to generate C code, with the following options:

  • -config to pass in the code generation configuration object cfg.

  • main.c to include this file in the compilation.

  • -report to create a code generation report.

  • -args to specify the class, size, and complexity of input arguments using example data.

codegen -config cfg main.c -report matrix_exp.m -args ones(160,160)

codegen generates a C executable, matrix_exp.exe, in the current folder and C code in the /codegen/exe/matrix_exp subfolder. Because you selected report generation, codegen provides a link to the report.

Viewing the Generated C Code

codegen generates a header file matrix_exp_types.h, which defines the matrix_expStackData global structure. This structure contains local variables that are too large to fit on the stack.

To view this header file:

  1. Click the View report link to open the code generation report.

  2. In the list of generated files, click matrix_exp_types.h.

/*
 * matrix_exp_types.h
 *
 * Code generation for function 'matrix_exp'
 *
 */

#ifndef __MATRIX_EXP_TYPES_H__
#define __MATRIX_EXP_TYPES_H__

/* Include files */
#include "rtwtypes.h"

/* Type Definitions */
#ifndef typedef_matrix_expStackData
#define typedef_matrix_expStackData

typedef struct {
  struct {
    double F[25600];
    double Y[25600];
    double X[25600];
  } f0;
} matrix_expStackData;

#endif                                 /*typedef_matrix_expStackData*/
#endif

/* End of code generation (matrix_exp_types.h) */

Running the Code

Verify that the example is running on Windows platforms and call the code.

% This example can only be run on Windows platforms
if ~ispc
 error('This example requires Windows-specific libraries and can only be run on Windows.');
end
system('matrix_exp.exe')

The executable runs and reports completion.

Key Points to Remember

  • Create a main function that:

    • Includes the generated header file, primary_function_name_types.h. This file defines the primary_function_nameStackData global structure. This structure contains local variables that are too large to fit on the stack.

    • For each thread, allocates memory for stack data.

    • Calls primary_function_name_initialize.

    • Calls primary_function_name.

    • Calls primary_function_name_terminate.

    • Frees the stack data memory.

  • Use the -config option to pass the code generation configuration object to the codegen function.

  • Use the -args option to specify input parameters at the command line.

  • Use the -report option to create a code generation report.

Learn More

ToSee

Learn more about the generated code API

API for Generated Reusable Code

Call reentrant code without persistent or global data on UNIX®

Call Reentrant Code with No Persistent or Global Data (UNIX Only)

Call reentrant code with persistent data on Windows

Call Reentrant Code — Multithreaded with Persistent Data (Windows Only)

Call reentrant code with persistent data on UNIX

Call Reentrant Code — Multithreaded with Persistent Data (UNIX Only)