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resubLoss

Resubstitution classification loss for naive Bayes classifier

Description

example

L = resubLoss(Mdl) returns the Classification Loss by resubstitution (L) or the in-sample classification loss, for the naive Bayes classifier Mdl using the training data stored in Mdl.X and the corresponding class labels stored in Mdl.Y.

The classification loss (L) is a generalization or resubstitution quality measure. Its interpretation depends on the loss function and weighting scheme; in general, better classifiers yield smaller classification loss values.

example

L = resubLoss(Mdl,'LossFun',LossFun) returns the classification loss by resubstitution using the loss function supplied in LossFun.

Examples

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Determine the in-sample classification error (resubstitution loss) of a naive Bayes classifier. In general, a smaller loss indicates a better classifier.

Load the fisheriris data set. Create X as a numeric matrix that contains four petal measurements for 150 irises. Create Y as a cell array of character vectors that contains the corresponding iris species.

load fisheriris
X = meas;
Y = species;

Train a naive Bayes classifier using the predictors X and class labels Y. A recommended practice is to specify the class names. fitcnb assumes that each predictor is conditionally and normally distributed.

Mdl = fitcnb(X,Y,'ClassNames',{'setosa','versicolor','virginica'})
Mdl = 
  ClassificationNaiveBayes
              ResponseName: 'Y'
     CategoricalPredictors: []
                ClassNames: {'setosa'  'versicolor'  'virginica'}
            ScoreTransform: 'none'
           NumObservations: 150
         DistributionNames: {'normal'  'normal'  'normal'  'normal'}
    DistributionParameters: {3x4 cell}


  Properties, Methods

Mdl is a trained ClassificationNaiveBayes classifier.

Estimate the in-sample classification error.

L = resubLoss(Mdl)
L = 0.0400

The naive Bayes classifier misclassifies 4% of the training observations.

Load the fisheriris data set. Create X as a numeric matrix that contains four petal measurements for 150 irises. Create Y as a cell array of character vectors that contains the corresponding iris species.

load fisheriris
X = meas;
Y = species;

Train a naive Bayes classifier using the predictors X and class labels Y. A recommended practice is to specify the class names. fitcnb assumes that each predictor is conditionally and normally distributed.

Mdl = fitcnb(X,Y,'ClassNames',{'setosa','versicolor','virginica'});

Mdl is a trained ClassificationNaiveBayes classifier.

Estimate the logit resubstitution loss.

L = resubLoss(Mdl,'LossFun','logit')
L = 0.3310

The average in-sample logit loss is approximately 0.33.

Input Arguments

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Full, trained naive Bayes classifier, specified as a ClassificationNaiveBayes model trained by fitcnb.

Loss function, specified as a built-in loss function name or function handle.

  • The following table lists the available loss functions. Specify one using its corresponding character vector or string scalar.

    ValueDescription
    'binodeviance'Binomial deviance
    'classiferror'Classification error
    'exponential'Exponential
    'hinge'Hinge
    'logit'Logistic
    'mincost'Minimal expected misclassification cost (for classification scores that are posterior probabilities)
    'quadratic'Quadratic

    'mincost' is appropriate for classification scores that are posterior probabilities. Naive Bayes models return posterior probabilities as classification scores by default (see predict).

  • Specify your own function using function handle notation.

    Suppose that n is the number of observations in X and K is the number of distinct classes (numel(Mdl.ClassNames), where Mdl is the input model). Your function must have this signature

    lossvalue = lossfun(C,S,W,Cost)
    where:

    • The output argument lossvalue is a scalar.

    • You specify the function name (lossfun).

    • C is an n-by-K logical matrix with rows indicating the class to which the corresponding observation belongs. The column order corresponds to the class order in Mdl.ClassNames.

      Create C by setting C(p,q) = 1 if observation p is in class q, for each row. Set all other elements of row p to 0.

    • S is an n-by-K numeric matrix of classification scores. The column order corresponds to the class order in Mdl.ClassNames. S is a matrix of classification scores, similar to the output of predict.

    • W is an n-by-1 numeric vector of observation weights. If you pass W, the software normalizes the weights to sum to 1.

    • Cost is a K-by-K numeric matrix of misclassification costs. For example, Cost = ones(K) - eye(K) specifies a cost of 0 for correct classification and 1 for misclassification.

    Specify your function using 'LossFun',@lossfun.

For more details on loss functions, see Classification Loss.

Data Types: char | string | function_handle

More About

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Classification Loss

Classification loss functions measure the predictive inaccuracy of classification models. When you compare the same type of loss among many models, a lower loss indicates a better predictive model.

Consider the following scenario.

  • L is the weighted average classification loss.

  • n is the sample size.

  • For binary classification:

    • yj is the observed class label. The software codes it as –1 or 1, indicating the negative or positive class, respectively.

    • f(Xj) is the raw classification score for observation (row) j of the predictor data X.

    • mj = yjf(Xj) is the classification score for classifying observation j into the class corresponding to yj. Positive values of mj indicate correct classification and do not contribute much to the average loss. Negative values of mj indicate incorrect classification and contribute significantly to the average loss.

  • For algorithms that support multiclass classification (that is, K ≥ 3):

    • yj* is a vector of K – 1 zeros, with 1 in the position corresponding to the true, observed class yj. For example, if the true class of the second observation is the third class and K = 4, then y2* = [0 0 1 0]′. The order of the classes corresponds to the order in the ClassNames property of the input model.

    • f(Xj) is the length K vector of class scores for observation j of the predictor data X. The order of the scores corresponds to the order of the classes in the ClassNames property of the input model.

    • mj = yj*f(Xj). Therefore, mj is the scalar classification score that the model predicts for the true, observed class.

  • The weight for observation j is wj. The software normalizes the observation weights so that they sum to the corresponding prior class probability. The software also normalizes the prior probabilities so they sum to 1. Therefore,

    j=1nwj=1.

Given this scenario, the following table describes the supported loss functions that you can specify by using the 'LossFun' name-value pair argument.

Loss FunctionValue of LossFunEquation
Binomial deviance'binodeviance'L=j=1nwjlog{1+exp[2mj]}.
Exponential loss'exponential'L=j=1nwjexp(mj).
Classification error'classiferror'

L=j=1nwjI{y^jyj}.

The classification error is the weighted fraction of misclassified observations where y^j is the class label corresponding to the class with the maximal posterior probability. I{x} is the indicator function.

Hinge loss'hinge'L=j=1nwjmax{0,1mj}.
Logit loss'logit'L=j=1nwjlog(1+exp(mj)).
Minimal cost'mincost'

The software computes the weighted minimal cost using this procedure for observations j = 1,...,n.

  1. Estimate the 1-by-K vector of expected classification costs for observation j:

    γj=f(Xj)C.

    f(Xj) is the column vector of class posterior probabilities for binary and multiclass classification. C is the cost matrix stored by the input model in the Cost property.

  2. For observation j, predict the class label corresponding to the minimum expected classification cost:

    y^j=minj=1,...,K(γj).

  3. Using C, identify the cost incurred (cj) for making the prediction.

The weighted, average, minimum cost loss is

L=j=1nwjcj.

Quadratic loss'quadratic'L=j=1nwj(1mj)2.

This figure compares the loss functions (except 'mincost') for one observation over m. Some functions are normalized to pass through [0,1].

Comparison of classification losses for different loss functions

Posterior Probability

The posterior probability is the probability that an observation belongs in a particular class, given the data.

For naive Bayes, the posterior probability that a classification is k for a given observation (x1,...,xP) is

P^(Y=k|x1,..,xP)=P(X1,...,XP|y=k)π(Y=k)P(X1,...,XP),

where:

  • P(X1,...,XP|y=k) is the conditional joint density of the predictors given they are in class k. Mdl.DistributionNames stores the distribution names of the predictors.

  • π(Y = k) is the class prior probability distribution. Mdl.Prior stores the prior distribution.

  • P(X1,..,XP) is the joint density of the predictors. The classes are discrete, so P(X1,...,XP)=k=1KP(X1,...,XP|y=k)π(Y=k).

Prior Probability

The prior probability of a class is the assumed relative frequency with which observations from that class occur in a population.

Introduced in R2014b