# Heat Exchanger (TL)

Heat exchanger for systems with thermal liquid and controlled flows

**Library:**Simscape / Fluids / Fluid Network Interfaces / Heat Exchangers

## Description

The Heat Exchanger (TL) block models the cooling and
heating of fluids through conduction over a thin wall. The properties of a single-phase
thermal liquid are defined on the **Thermal Liquid** tab. The second fluid is
a controlled fluid, which is specified only by the user-defined parameters on the
**Controlled Fluid** tab. It does not receive any properties from the
domain fluid network. The heat exchange between the fluids is based on the thermal liquid
sensible heat.

### Block Variants

Two heat transfer models are available:

The E-NTU Model

The Simple Model

To set one of these models, right-click the block and select **Simscape** > **Block Choices**.

### The `E-NTU Model`

Variant

The E-NTU model, based on the Effectiveness-NTU method, is the block default variant. Steady-state heat transfer is determined based on a coefficient relating ideal to real losses in the system:

$${Q}_{\text{Act}}=\u03f5{Q}_{\text{Max}},$$

where

*Q*_{Act}the actual heat transfer rate.*Q*_{Max}is the ideal heat transfer rate.*ε*is the heat exchanger effectiveness, which is based on the ratio of heat capacity rates, $$\frac{{C}_{\text{Min}}}{{C}_{\text{Max}}}$$, and the exchanger Number of Transfer Units:$$NTU=\frac{1}{R{C}_{\text{Min}}},$$

where

*R*is the overall thermal resistance, which is discussed in Thermal Resistance below.*C*_{Min}is the lesser heat capacity rate of the two fluids and*C*_{Max}is the greater heat capacity rate of the two fluids. The heat capacity rate is calculated as $$C={c}_{\text{p}}\dot{m}.$$

Additionally, the exchanger effectiveness depends on the number of passes between the
fluids and the fluid mixing conditions. For different parameterizations of
*ε*, see E-NTU Heat Transfer. Connect an E-NTU
Heat Transfer block to a Heat Exchanger (TL) block to specify the heat
transfer properties in with the E-NTU method.

**Flow Arrangement**

Use the **Flow arrangement** parameter to define the flow
configuration in terms of pipe orientation or effectiveness tables. When using the
shell-and-tube configuration, you can select the number of passes in the exchanger. A
multi-pass exchanger resembles the image below.

A single-pass exchanger resembles the image below.

Other flow arrangements are possible through a generic parameterization by tabulated effectiveness data. This table does not require specific heat exchanger configuration details, such as flow arrangement, mixing, and passes, for modeling the heat transfer between the fluids.

**Mixing Condition**

Use the **Cross flow type** parameter to model flows that are not
restricted by baffles or walls, which homogenizes fluid temperature along the direction of
flow of the second fluid and varies perpendicular to the second fluid flow. Unmixed flows
vary in temperature both along and perpendicular to the flow direction of the second
fluid. An example of a heat exchanger with one mixed and one unmixed fluid resembles the
configuration below.

A heat exchanger with two unmixed fluids resembles the configuration below.

In counter and parallel flow arrangements, longitudinal temperature variation in one fluid results in a longitudinal change in temperature variation in the second fluid and mixing is not taken into account.

**Effectiveness Curves**

Shell-and-tube exchangers with multiple passes (**iv.b**-**e** in the figure for 2, 3, and 4
passes) are the most effective type of heat exchanger. For single-pass heat exchangers,
the counter-flow configuration (**ii**) is the most
effective, and parallel flow (**i**) is the least.

Cross-flow exchangers are intermediate in effectiveness, with mixing condition playing
a factor. They are most effective when both flows are unmixed (**iii.a**) and least effective when both flows are mixed (**iii.b**). Mixing just the flow with the smallest heat capacity rate (**iii.c**) lowers the effectiveness more than mixing just the flow
with the largest heat capacity rate (**iii.d**).

**Thermal Resistance**

The overall thermal resistance, *R*, is the sum of the local
resistances to heat transfer due to convection, conduction, and fouling along the heat
exchanger walls:

$$R=\frac{1}{{U}_{Th}{A}_{\text{Th}}}+\frac{{F}_{Th}}{{A}_{\text{Th}}}+{R}_{\text{W}}+\frac{{F}_{\text{C}}}{{A}_{\text{C}}}+\frac{1}{{U}_{C}{A}_{\text{C}}},$$

where:

*U*_{Th}is the heat transfer coefficient between the thermal liquid and the wall.*U*_{C}is the heat transfer coefficient between the controlled fluid and the wall, which is received as a physical signal at port**HC2**.*F*_{Th}is the thermal liquid**Fouling factor**.*F*_{C}is the controlled fluid**Fouling factor**.*A*_{Th}is the thermal liquid**Heat transfer surface area**.*A*_{C}is the controlled fluid**Heat transfer surface area**.*R*_{W}is the**Wall thermal resistance**.

The heat transfer coefficients depend on the heat exchanger configuration and fluid properties. See the E-NTU Heat Transfer reference page for more information.

**Composite Structure**

When the Heat Exchanger (TL) block employs the `E-NTU Model`

variant, it is a composite of the Heat
Exchanger Interface (TL) and E-NTU
Heat Transfer blocks:

### The `Simple Model`

Variant

Heat transfer by the simple model is based on specific dissipation:

$$Q=\xi ({T}_{\text{In,Th}}-{T}_{\text{In,C}}),$$

where:

*ξ*is specific dissipation, which is a function of the mass flow rates of the thermal and controlled liquids.*T*_{In,Th}is the thermal liquid inlet temperature.*T*_{In,C}is the controlled liquid inlet temperature.

The simple model is based on linear interpolation of user-provided tabulated data and does not capture individual features of the heat exchanger.

**Composite Structure**

When the Heat Exchanger (TL) block employs the `Simple Model`

variant, it is a composite of the Simple Heat Exchanger
Interface (TL) and Specific Dissipation Heat
Transfer blocks:

## Ports

### Conserving

`A1`

— Thermal liquid port

thermal liquid

Opening for thermal liquid to enter and exit its side of the heat exchanger.

`B1`

— Thermal liquid port

thermal liquid

Opening for thermal liquid to enter and exit its side of the heat exchanger.

### Input

`C`

— Heat capacity rate

physical signal

Instantaneous value of the heat capacity rate for the controlled flow.

#### Dependencies

This port is active only for the block variant of ```
E-NTU
Model
```

.

`HC`

— Heat transfer coefficient

physical signal

Instantaneous value of the heat transfer coefficient between the controlled flow and the wall.

#### Dependencies

This port is active only for the block variant of ```
E-NTU
Model
```

.

`CP2`

— Isobaric specific heat of controlled fluid

physical signal

Instantaneous value of the isobaric specific heat for the controlled fluid.

#### Dependencies

This port is active only for the block variant of ```
Simple
Model
```

.

`M2`

— Mass flow rate of controlled fluid

physical signal

Instantaneous value of the mass flow rate of the controlled fluid.

#### Dependencies

This port is active only for the block variant of ```
Simple
Model
```

.

## Parameters

### Block Variant: `Simple Model`

**Heat Transfer Tab**

`Thermal liquid mass flow rate vector`

— Mass flow rate of thermal liquid at each breakpoint in lookup table for specific
heat dissipation table

numerical array with units of mass over time

Mass flow rate of thermal liquid at each breakpoint in the lookup table for the
specific heat dissipation table. The block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to
obtain the specific heat dissipation of the heat exchanger at any mass flow rate.
Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and extrapolation is
`nearest`

.

The mass flow rates can be positive, zero, or negative, but they must increase
monotonically from left to right. Their number must equal the number of columns in the
**Specific heat dissipation table** parameter. If the table has
*m* rows and *n* columns, the mass flow rate
vector must be *n* elements long.

`Controlled fluid mass flow rate vector`

— Mass flow rate of controlled fluid at each breakpoint in lookup table for specific heat dissipation table

numerical array with units of mass over time

Mass flow rate of controlled fluid at each breakpoint in the lookup table for the
specific heat dissipation table. The block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to
obtain the specific heat dissipation of the heat exchanger at any mass flow rate.
Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and extrapolation is
`nearest`

.

The mass flow rates can be positive, zero, or negative, but they must increase
monotonically from left to right. Their number must equal the number of columns in the
**Specific heat dissipation table** parameter. If the table has
*m* rows and *n* columns, the mass flow rate
vector must be *n* elements long.

`Specific heat dissipation table`

— Specific heat dissipation at each breakpoint in lookup table over mass flow rates of thermal liquid and controlled fluid

numerical array with units of power over temperature

Specific heat dissipation at each breakpoint in its lookup table over the mass
flow rates of thermal liquid and controlled fluid. The block inter- and extrapolates
the breakpoints to obtain the effectiveness at any pair of thermal liquid and
controlled fluid mass flow rates. Interpolation is the MATLAB
`linear`

type and extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The specific heat dissipation values must be not be negative. They must align from
top to bottom in order of increasing mass flow rate in the thermal liquid channel, and
from left to right in order of increasing mass flow rate in the controlled fluid
channel. The number of rows must equal the size of the **Thermal liquid mass
flow rate vector** parameter, and the number of columns must equal the size
of the **Controlled fluid mass flow rate vector** parameter.

`Check if violating maximum specific dissipation`

— Warning condition for specific heat dissipation in excess of minimum heat capacity rate

`Warning`

(default) | `None`

Warning condition for specific heat dissipation in excess of minimum heat capacity rate. Heat capacity rate is the product of mass flow rate and specific heat, and its minimum value is the lowest between the flows. This minimum gives the specific dissipation for a heat exchanger with maximum effectiveness and cannot be exceeded. See the Specific Dissipation Heat Transfer block for more detail.

**Pressure Loss Tab**

`Mass flow rate vector`

— Mass flow rate at each breakpoint in lookup table for pressure drop

numerical array with units of mass per unit time

Mass flow rate at each breakpoint in the lookup table for the pressure drop. The
block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the pressure drop at any mass
flow rate. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and
extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The mass flow rates can be positive, zero, or negative and they can span across
laminar, transient, and turbulent zones. They must, however, increase monotonically
from left to right. Their number must equal the size of the **Pressure drop
vector** parameter, with which they are to combine to complete the
tabulated breakpoints.

`Pressure drop vector`

— Pressure drop at each breakpoint in lookup table over mass flow rate

numerical array with units of pressure

Pressure drop at each breakpoint in its lookup table over the mass flow rate. The
block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the pressure drop at any mass
flow rate. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and
extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The pressure drops can be positive, zero, or negative, and they can span across
laminar, transient, and turbulent zones. They must, however, increase monotonically
from left to right. Their number must equal the size of the **Mass flow rate
vector** parameter, with which they are to combine to complete the
tabulated breakpoints.

`Reference inflow temperature`

— Absolute inlet temperature assumed in tabulated data

`293.15 K`

(default) | scalar with units of temperature

Absolute temperature established at the inlet in the gathering of the tabulated pressure drops. The reference inflow temperature and pressure determine the fluid density assumed in the tabulated data. During simulation, the ratio of reference to actual fluid densities multiplies the tabulated pressure drop to obtain the actual pressure drop.

`Reference inflow pressure`

— Absolute inlet pressure assumed in tabulated data

`0.101325 MPa`

(default) | scalar with units of pressure

Absolute pressure established at the inlet in the gathering of the tabulated pressure drops. The reference inflow temperature and pressure determine the fluid density assumed in the tabulated data. During simulation, the ratio of reference to actual fluid densities multiplies the tabulated pressure drop to obtain the actual pressure drop.

`Mass flow rate threshold for flow reversal`

— Upper bound of numerically smooth region for mass flow rate

`1e-3 kg/s`

(default) | scalar with units of mass/time

Mass flow rate below which its value is numerically smoothed to avoid
discontinuities known to produce simulation errors at zero flow. See the
Simple Heat Exchanger
Interface (TL) block (on which the ```
Simple
Model
```

variant is based) for detail on the calculations for the thermal
liquid side of the exchanger.

`Thermal liquid volume`

— Volume of fluid in the thermal liquid flow channel

`0.01 m^3`

(default) | scalar with units of length cubed

Volume of fluid in the thermal liquid flow channel.

`Cross-sectional area at ports A1 and B1`

— Flow area at the inlet and outlet of the flow channel

`0.01 m^2`

(default) | scalar with units of length squared

Flow area at the inlet and outlet of the thermal liquid flow channel. The ports are of the same size.

### Block Variant: `E-NTU Model`

**Common Tab**

`Flow arrangement`

— Manner in which the flows align in the heat exchanger

`Parallel or counter flow`

(default) | `Shell and tube`

| `Cross flow`

| `Generic - effectiveness table`

Manner in which the flows align in the heat exchanger. The flows can run parallel to each other, counter to each other, or across each other. They can also run in a pressurized shell, one through tubes enclosed in the shell, the other around those tubes. Other flow arrangements are possible through a generic parameterization based on tabulated effectiveness data and requiring little detail about the heat exchanger.

`Number of shell passes`

— Number of times the flow traverses the shell before exiting

`1`

(default) | unitless scalar

Number of times the flow traverses the shell before exiting.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Flow arrangement**
setting of `Shell and tube`

.

`Cross flow type`

— Mixing condition in each of the flow channels

`Both fluids mixed`

(default) | `Both fluids unmixed`

| ```
Thermal liquid mixed & Controlled Fluid
unmixed
```

| ```
Thermal liquid unmixed & Controlled Fluid
mixed
```

Mixing condition in each of the flow channels. Mixing in this context is the lateral movement of fluid as it proceeds along its flow channel toward the outlet. The flows remain separate from each other. Unmixed flows are common in channels with plates, baffles, or fins. This setting reflects in the effectiveness of the heat exchanger, with unmixed flows being most effective and mixed flows being least.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Flow arrangement**
setting of `Shell and tube`

.

`Number of heat transfer units vector, NTU`

— Number of transfer units at each breakpoint in lookup table for heat exchanger effectiveness

unitless numerical array

Number of transfer units at each breakpoint in the lookup table for the heat
exchanger effectiveness number. The table is two-way, with both the number of transfer
units and the thermal capacity ratio serving as independent coordinates. The block
inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the effectiveness at any number of
transfer units. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and
extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The numbers specified must be greater than zero and increase monotonically from
left to right. The size of the vector must equal the number of rows in the
**Effectiveness table** parameter. If the table has
*m* rows and *n* columns, the vector for the
number of transfer units must be *m* elements long.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Flow arrangement**
setting of `Generic - effectiveness table`

.

`Thermal capacity ratio vector, CR`

— Thermal capacity ratio at each breakpoint in lookup table for heat exchanger effectiveness

unitless numerical array

Thermal capacity ratio at each breakpoint in lookup table for heat exchanger
effectiveness. The table is two-way, with both the number of transfer units and the
heat capacity rate ratio serving as independent coordinates. The block inter- and
extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the effectiveness at any thermal capacity
ratio. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and extrapolation is
`nearest`

.

The thermal capacity ratios must be greater than zero and increase monotonically
from left to right. The size of the vector must equal the number of columns in the
**Nusselt number table** parameter. If the table has
*m* rows and *n* columns, the vector for the
thermal capacity ratio must be *n* elements long. The thermal
capacity ratio is the fraction of minimum over maximum heat capacity rates.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Flow arrangement**
setting of `Generic - effectiveness table`

.

`Effectiveness table, E(NTU,CR)`

— Heat exchanger effectiveness at each breakpoint in lookup table over the number of transfer units and thermal capacity ratio

unitless numerical array

Heat exchanger effectiveness at each breakpoint in its lookup table over the
number of transfer units and thermal capacity ratio. The block inter- and extrapolates
the breakpoints to obtain the effectiveness at any pair of number of transfer units
and thermal capacity ratio. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type
and extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The effectiveness values must be not be negative. They must align from top to
bottom in order of increasing number of transfer units and from left to right in order
of increasing thermal capacity ratio. The number of rows must equal the size of the
**Number of heat transfer units vector** parameter, and the number
of columns must equal the size of the **Thermal capacity ratio
vector** parameter.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Flow arrangement**
setting of `Generic - effectiveness table`

.

`Wall thermal resistance`

— Resistance of the wall to heat flow by thermal conduction

`1.6e-4 K/W`

(default) | scalar with units of temperature over power

Resistance of the wall to heat flow by thermal conduction, and the inverse of thermal conductance, or the product of thermal conductivity with the ratio of surface area to length. Wall resistance adds to convective and fouling resistances to determine the overall heat transfer coefficient between the flows.

**Thermal liquid Tab**

`Minimum free-flow area`

— Cross-sectional area of the flow channel at its narrowest point

`0.01 m^2`

(default) | scalar with units of length squared

Cross-sectional area of the flow channel at its narrowest point. If the channel is a collection of ducts, tubes, slots, or grooves, the area is the sum of the areas in the collection—minus the occlusion due to walls, ridges, plates, or other barriers.

`Thermal liquid volume`

— Total volume of fluid in the thermal liquid flow channel

`0.01 m^3`

(default) | scalar with units of length squared

Total volume of fluid contained in the thermal liquid flow channel.

`Hydraulic diameter for pressure loss`

— Effective diameter of the flow channel at its narrowest point

`0.1 m`

(default) | scalar with units of length

Effective inner diameter of the flow at its narrowest point. For channels not circular in cross section, that diameter is of an imaginary circle equal in area to the flow cross section. Its value is the ratio of the minimum free-flow area to a fourth of its gross perimeter.

If the channel is a collection of ducts, tubes, slots, or grooves, the gross perimeter is the sum of the perimeters in the collection. If the channel is a single pipe or tube and it is circular in cross section, the hydraulic diameter is the same as the true diameter.

`Laminar flow upper Reynolds number limit`

— Start of transition between laminar and turbulent zones

`2000`

(default) | unitless scalar

Start of transition between laminar and turbulent zones. Above this number, inertial forces take hold and the flow grows progressively turbulent. The default value is characteristic of circular pipes and tubes with smooth surfaces.

`Turbulent flow lower Reynolds number limit`

— End of transition between laminar and turbulent zones

`4000`

(default) | unitless scalar

End of transition between laminar and turbulent zones. Below this number, viscous forces take hold and the flow grows progressively laminar. The default value is characteristic of circular pipes and tubes with smooth surfaces.

`Pressure loss parameterization`

— Mathematical model for pressure loss by viscous friction

`constant loss coefficient`

(default) | `correlations for tubes`

| ```
Tabulated data - Darcy friction factor vs. Reynolds
number
```

| ```
Tabulated data - Euler number vs. Reynolds
number
```

Mathematical model for pressure loss by viscous friction. This setting determines which expressions to use for calculation and which block parameters to specify as input. See the Heat Exchanger Interface (TL) block for the calculations by parameterization.

`Pressure loss coefficient`

— Aggregate loss coefficient for all flow resistances between the ports

`0.1`

(default) | unitless scalar

Aggregate loss coefficient for all flow resistances in the flow channel—including the wall friction responsible for major loss and the local resistances, due to bends, elbows, and other geometry changes, responsible for minor loss.

The loss coefficient is an empirical dimensionless number commonly used to express the pressure loss due to viscous friction. It can be calculated from experimental data or, in some cases, obtained from product data sheets.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Pressure loss
parameterization** setting of ```
Constant loss
coefficient
```

.

`Length of flow path from inlet to outlet`

— Distance traveled from port to port

`1 m`

(default) | unitless scalar with units of length

Total distance the flow must travel to reach across the ports. In multi-pass shell-and-tube exchangers, the total distance is the sum over all shell passes. In tube bundles, corrugated plates, and other channels in which the flow is split into parallel branches, it is the distance covered in a single branch. The longer the flow path, the steeper the major pressure loss due to viscous friction at the wall.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Pressure loss
parameterization** setting of ```
Correlations for
tubes
```

and ```
Tabulated data - Darcy friction factor vs
Reynolds number
```

.

`Aggregate equivalent length of local resistances`

— Aggregate minor pressure loss expressed as a length

`0.1 m`

(default) | scalar with units of length

Aggregate minor pressure loss expressed as a length. This length is that which all local resistances, such as elbows, tees, and unions, would add to the flow path if in their place was a simple wall extension. The larger the equivalent length, the steeper the minor pressure loss due to the local resistances.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Pressure loss
parameterization** setting of ```
Correlations for
tubes
```

.

`Internal surface absolute roughness`

— Mean height of surface protrusions behind wall friction

`15e-6 m`

(default) | scalar with units of length

Mean height of the surface protrusions from which wall friction arises. Higher protrusions mean a rougher wall for more friction and so a steeper pressure loss. Surface roughness features in the Haaland correlation from which the Darcy friction factor derives and on which the pressure loss calculation depends.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Pressure loss
parameterization** setting of ```
Correlations for
tubes
```

.

`Laminar friction constant for Darcy friction factor`

— Pressure loss correction for flow cross section in laminar flow conditions

`64`

(default) | unitless scalar

Pressure loss correction for flow cross section in laminar flow conditions. This parameter is commonly referred to as the shape factor. Its ratio to the Reynolds number gives the Darcy friction factor for the pressure loss calculation in the laminar zone. The default value belongs to cylindrical pipes and tubes.

The shape factor derives for certain shapes from the solution of the Navier-Stokes
equations. A square duct has a shape factor of `56`

, a rectangular
duct with aspect ratio of 2:1 has a shape factor of `62`

, and an
annular tube has a shape factor of `96`

, as does a slender conduit
between parallel plates.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Pressure loss
parameterization** setting of ```
Correlations for
tubes
```

.

`Reynolds number vector for Darcy friction factor`

— Reynolds number at each breakpoint in lookup table for Darcy friction factor

unitless numerical array

Reynolds number at each breakpoint in the lookup table for the Darcy friction
factor. The block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the Darcy friction
factor at any Reynolds number. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The Reynolds numbers must be greater than zero and increase monotonically from
left to right. They can span across laminar, transient, and turbulent zones. Their
number must equal the size of the **Darcy friction factor vector**
parameter, with which they are to combine to complete the tabulated
breakpoints.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Pressure loss
parameterization** setting of ```
Tabulated data - Darcy
friction factor vs. Reynolds number
```

.

`Darcy friction factor vector`

— Darcy friction factor at each breakpoint in lookup table over Reynolds number

unitless numerical array

Darcy friction factor at each breakpoint in its lookup table over the Reynolds
number. The block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the Darcy friction
factor at any Reynolds number. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The Darcy friction factors must not be negative and they must align from left to
right in order of increasing Reynolds number. Their number must equal the size of the
**Reynolds number vector for Darcy friction factor** parameter,
with which they are to combine to complete the tabulated breakpoints.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Pressure loss
parameterization** setting of ```
Tabulated data - Darcy
friction factor vs. Reynolds number
```

.

`Reynolds number vector for Euler number`

— Reynolds number at each breakpoint in lookup table for Euler number

unitless numerical array

Reynolds number at each breakpoint in the lookup table for the Euler number. The
block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the Euler number at any
Reynolds number. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and
extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The Reynolds numbers must be greater than zero and increase monotonically from
left to right. They can span across laminar, transient, and turbulent zones. Their
number must equal the size of the **Euler number vector** parameter,
with which they are to combine to complete the tabulated breakpoints.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Pressure loss
parameterization** setting of ```
Tabulated data - Euler number
vs. Reynolds number
```

.

`Euler number vector`

— Euler number at each breakpoint in lookup table over Reynolds number

unitless numerical array

Euler number at each breakpoint in its lookup table over the Reynolds number. The
block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the Euler number at any
Reynolds number. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and
extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The Euler numbers must not be negative and they must align from left to right in
order of increasing Reynolds number. Their number must equal the size of the
**Reynolds number vector for Euler number** parameter, with which
they are to combine to complete the tabulated breakpoints.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Pressure loss
parameterization** setting of ```
Tabulated data - Euler number
vs. Reynolds number
```

.

`Heat transfer parameterization`

— Mathematical model for heat transfer between fluid and wall

```
Constant heat transfer
coefficient
```

(default) | `Correlations for tubes`

| ```
Tabulated data - Colburn factor vs. Reynolds
number
```

| ```
Tabulated data - Nusselt number vs. Reynolds number & Prandtl
number
```

Mathematical model for heat transfer between fluid and wall. The choice of model determines which expressions to apply and which parameters to specify for heat transfer calculation. See the E-NTU Heat Transfer block for the calculations by parameterization.

`Heat transfer surface area`

— Effective surface area used in heat transfer between fluid and wall

`0.4 m^2`

(default) | scalar with units of length squared

Effective surface area used in heat transfer between fluid and wall. The effective surface area is the sum of primary and secondary surface areas, or those of the wall, where it is exposed to fluid, and of the fins, if any are used. Fin surface area is normally scaled by a fin efficiency factor.

`Thermal liquid-wall heat transfer coefficient`

— Heat transfer coefficient for convection between fluid and wall

`0.4 m^2`

(default) | unitless scalar

Heat transfer coefficient for convection between fluid and wall. Resistance due to
fouling is captured separately in the **Fouling factor** parameter.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Heat transfer
parameterization** setting of ```
Constant heat transfer
coefficient
```

.

`Length of flow path for heat transfer`

— Characteristic length traversed in heat transfer between fluid and wall

`1 m`

(default) | scalar with units of length

Characteristic length traversed in heat transfer between fluid and wall. This length factors in the calculation of the hydraulic diameter from which the heat transfer coefficient and the Reynolds number, as defined in the tabulated heat transfer parameterizations, derives.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Heat transfer
parameterization** setting of ```
Tabulated data - Colburn
factor vs. Reynolds number
```

or ```
Tabulated data - Nusselt
number vs. Reynolds number & Prandtl number
```

.

`Nusselt number for laminar flow heat transfer`

— Constant assumed for Nusselt number in laminar flow

`3.66`

(default) | positive unitless scalar

Constant assumed for Nusselt number in laminar flow. The Nusselt number factors in the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient between fluid and wall, on which the heat transfer rate depends. The default value belongs to cylindrical pipes and tubes.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Heat transfer
parameterization** setting of ```
Correlations for
tubes
```

.

`Reynolds number vector for Colburn factor`

— Values of the Reynolds number at which to specify the Colburn factor data

unitless numerical array

Reynolds number at each breakpoint in the lookup table for the Colburn factor. The
block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the Colburn factor at any
Reynolds number. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and
extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The Reynolds numbers must be greater than zero and increase monotonically from
left to right. They can span across laminar, transient, and turbulent zones. Their
number must equal the size of the **Colburn factor vector**
parameter, with which they are to combine to complete the tabulated
breakpoints.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Heat transfer
parameterization** setting of ```
Tabulated data - Colburn
factor vs. Reynolds number
```

.

`Colburn factor vector`

— Colburn factor at each breakpoint in lookup table over Reynolds number

unitless numerical array

Colburn factor at each breakpoint in its lookup table over the Reynolds number.
The block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the Euler number at any
Reynolds number. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and
extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The Colburn factors must not be negative and they must align from left to right in
order of increasing Reynolds number. Their number must equal the size of the
**Reynolds number vector for Colburn factor** parameter, with which
they are to combine to complete the tabulated breakpoints.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Heat transfer
parameterization** setting of ```
Tabulated data - Colburn
factor vs. Reynolds number
```

.

`Reynolds number vector for Nusselt number`

— Reynolds number at each breakpoint in lookup table for Nusselt number

unitless numerical array

Reynolds number at each breakpoint in the lookup table for the Nusselt number. The
table is two-way, with both Reynolds and Prandtl numbers serving as independent
coordinates. The block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the Nusselt
number at any Reynolds number. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The Reynolds numbers must be greater than zero and increase monotonically from
left to right. They can span across laminar, transient, and turbulent zones. The size
of the vector must equal the number of rows in the **Nusselt number
table** parameter. If the table has *m* rows and
*n* columns, the Reynolds number vector must be
*m* elements long.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Heat transfer
parameterization** setting of ```
Tabulated data - Nusselt
number vs. Reynolds number & Prandtl number
```

.

`Prandtl number vector for Nusselt number`

— Prandtl number at each breakpoint in lookup table for Nusselt number

unitless numerical array

Prandtl number at each breakpoint in the lookup table for the Nusselt number. The
table is two-way, with both Reynolds and Prandtl numbers serving as independent
coordinates. The block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the Nusselt
number at any Prandtl number. Interpolation is the MATLAB `linear`

type and extrapolation is `nearest`

.

The Prandlt numbers must be greater than zero and increase monotonically from left
to right. They can span across laminar, transient, and turbulent zones. The size of
the vector must equal the number of columns in the **Nusselt number
table** parameter. If the table has *m* rows and
*n* columns, the Prandtl number vector must be *n*
elements long.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Heat transfer
parameterization** setting of ```
Tabulated data - Nusselt
number vs. Reynolds number & Prandtl number
```

.

`Nusselt number table, Nu (Re,Pr)`

— Nusselt number at each breakpoint in lookup table over Reynolds and Prandtl numbers

unitless numerical array

Nusselt number at each breakpoint in its lookup table over the Reynolds and
Prandtl numbers. The block inter- and extrapolates the breakpoints to obtain the
Nusselt number at any pair of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. Interpolation is the
MATLAB `linear`

type and extrapolation is `nearest`

.
By determining the Nusselt number, the table feeds the calculation from which the heat
transfer coefficient between fluid and wall derives.

The Nusselt numbers must be greater than zero. They must align from top to bottom
in order of increasing Reynolds number and from left to right in order of increasing
Prandlt numbers. The number of rows must equal the size of the **Reynolds
number vector for Nusselt number** parameter, and the number of columns
must equal the size of the **Prandtl number vector for Nusselt
number** parameter.

#### Dependencies

This parameter applies solely to the **Heat transfer
parameterization** setting of ```
Tabulated data - Nusselt
number vs. Reynolds number & Prandtl number
```

.

`Fouling factor`

— Measure of thermal resistance due to fouling deposits

`1.6e-4 K/W`

(default) | scalar with units of temperature over power

Measure of thermal resistance due to fouling deposits which over time tend to build on the exposed surfaces of the wall. The deposits, as they impose between the fluid and wall a new solid layer through which heat must traverse, add to the heat transfer path an extra thermal resistance. Fouling deposits grow slowly and the resistance due to them is accordingly assumed constant during simulation.

`Minimum fluid-wall heat transfer coefficient`

— Lower bound for the heat transfer coefficient

`100 W/(m^2 * K)`

(default) | scalar with units of power/area/temperature

Lower bound for the heat transfer coefficient between fluid and wall. If calculation returns a lower heat transfer coefficient, this bound replaces the calculated value.

**Controlled Fluid Tab**

`Heat transfer surface area`

— Aggregate heat transfer surface area on the controlled fluid side

`0.4 m^2`

(default) | scalar with units of length squared

Aggregate heat transfer surface area on the controlled fluid side

`Fouling factor`

— Measure of thermal resistance due to fouling deposits

`1e-4 K/W`

(default) | scalar with units of length squared times temperature over power

Measure of thermal resistance due to fouling deposits which over time tend to build on the exposed surfaces of the wall. The deposits, as they impose between the controlled fluid and wall a new solid layer through which heat must traverse, add to the heat transfer path an extra thermal resistance. Fouling deposits grow slowly and the resistance due to them is accordingly assumed constant during simulation.

`Minimum fluid-wall heat transfer coefficient`

— Lower bound for the heat transfer coefficient

`100 W/(m^2 * K)`

(default) | scalar with units of power/area/temperature

Lower bound for the heat transfer coefficient between the controlled fluid and wall. If calculation returns a lower heat transfer coefficient, this bound replaces the calculated value.

### Effects and Initial Conditions

`Thermal liquid initial temperature`

— Temperature in the thermal liquid channel at the start of simulation

`293.15 K`

(default) | scalar with units of temperature

Temperature in the thermal liquid channel at the start of simulation.

`Thermal liquid initial pressure`

— Pressure in the thermal liquid channel at the start of simulation

`0.101325 MPa`

(default) | scalar with units of pressure

Pressure in the thermal liquid channel at the start of simulation.

## Model Examples

## Extended Capabilities

### C/C++ Code Generation

Generate C and C++ code using Simulink® Coder™.

## See Also

E-NTU Heat Transfer | Heat Exchanger Interface (TL) | Specific Dissipation Heat Transfer | Simple Heat Exchanger Interface (TL)

**Introduced in R2016a**

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