# Cartridge Valve Insert

Hydraulic cartridge valve insert

## Library

Directional Valves

## Description

The Cartridge Valve Insert block represents an insert of a hydraulic cartridge valve consisting of a poppet interacting with the seat. The poppet position is determined by pressures at ports A, B, and X and force of the spring. A schematic diagram of the cartridge valve insert is shown in the following illustration.

The Cartridge Valve Insert block is a structural model consisting of a Hydraulic Cartridge Valve Actuator block and a Variable Orifice block, as shown in the next illustration.

Pressures at port A and port B tend to open the valve, while pressure at the control port X, together with the spring, acts to close it. The model does not account for flow rates caused by poppet displacement and any loading on the poppet, such as inertia and friction. The valve remains closed as long as the aggregate pressure force is lower than the spring preload force. The poppet is forced off its seat as the preload force is reached and moves up proportionally to pressure increase until it passes the full stroke. Hydraulic properties of the gap between the poppet and the seat are simulated with the Variable Orifice block.

Connections A, B, and X are hydraulic conserving ports associated with the valve inlet, valve outlet, and valve control terminal, respectively. The block positive direction is from port A to port B. Pressure at port X acts to close the valve, while pressures at port A and port B act to open the orifice.

## Basic Assumptions and Limitations

Valve opening is linearly proportional to the pressure differential.

No loading on the poppet, such as inertia or friction, is considered.

The model does not account for flow rates caused by poppet displacement.

For orifices specified by the passage area (the first two parameterization options), the transition between laminar and turbulent regimes is assumed to be sharp and taking place exactly at

=`Re`

.`Re`

_{cr}For orifices specified by pressure-flow characteristics (the third parameterization option), the model does not explicitly account for the flow regime or leakage flow rate because the tabulated data is assumed to account for these characteristics.

## Parameters

**Port A poppet area**Effective poppet area at port A. The parameter value must be greater than zero. The default value is

`2e-4`

m^2.**Port A to port X area ratio**Ratio between poppet areas at port A and port X. The parameter value must be greater than zero. The default value is

`0.66`

.**Preload force**Spring preload force. The default value is

`26`

N.**Spring rate**Spring rate. The default value is

`1.4e4`

N/m.**Poppet stroke**Maximum poppet stroke. The parameter value must be greater than or equal to zero. The default value is

`5e-3`

m. This parameter is used if**Orifice specification**is set to`By maximum area and opening`

.**Initial opening**The initial opening of the valve. Its value must be greater than or equal to zero. The default value is

`0`

.**Orifice specification**Select one of the following methods for specifying the hydraulic properties of the gap between the poppet and the seat:

`By maximum area and opening`

— Provide values for the maximum orifice area and the maximum orifice opening. The passage area is linearly dependent on the control member displacement, that is, the orifice is closed at the initial position of the control member (zero displacement), and the maximum opening takes place at the maximum displacement. This is the default method.`By area vs. opening table`

— Provide tabulated data of orifice openings and corresponding orifice areas. The passage area is determined by one-dimensional table lookup. You have a choice of two interpolation methods and two extrapolation methods.`By pressure-flow characteristic`

— Provide tabulated data of orifice openings, pressure differentials, and corresponding flow rates. The flow rate is determined by two-dimensional table lookup. You have a choice of two interpolation methods and two extrapolation methods.

For more information on these options, see the Variable Orifice block reference page.

**Orifice maximum area**Specify the area of a fully opened orifice. The parameter value must be greater than zero. The default value is

`5e-5`

m^2. This parameter is used if**Orifice specification**is set to`By maximum area and opening`

.**Tabulated orifice openings**Specify the vector of input values for orifice openings as a one-dimensional array. The input values vector must be strictly increasing. The values can be nonuniformly spaced. The minimum number of values depends on the interpolation method: you must provide at least two values for linear interpolation, at least three values for smooth interpolation. The default values, in meters, are

`[-0.002 0 0.002 0.005 0.015]`

. If**Orifice specification**is set to`By area vs. opening table`

, the**Tabulated orifice openings**values will be used together with**Tabulated orifice area**values for one-dimensional table lookup. If**Orifice specification**is set to`By pressure-flow characteristic`

, the**Tabulated orifice openings**values will be used together with**Tabulated pressure differentials**and**Tabulated flow rates**for two-dimensional table lookup.**Tabulated orifice area**Specify the vector of orifice areas as a one-dimensional array. The vector must be of the same size as the orifice openings vector. All the values must be positive. The default values, in m^2, are

`[1e-09 2.0352e-07 4.0736e-05 0.00011438 0.00034356]`

. This parameter is used if**Orifice specification**is set to`By area vs. opening table`

.**Tabulated pressure differentials**Specify the pressure differential vector as a one-dimensional array. The vector must be strictly increasing. The values can be nonuniformly spaced. The minimum number of values depends on the interpolation method: you must provide at least two values for linear interpolation, at least three values for smooth interpolation. The default values, in Pa, are

`[-1e+07 -5e+06 -2e+06 2e+06 5e+06 1e+07]`

. This parameter is used if**Orifice specification**is set to`By pressure-flow characteristic`

.**Tabulated flow rates**Specify the flow rates as an

`m`

-by-`n`

matrix, where`m`

is the number of orifice openings and`n`

is the number of pressure differentials. Each value in the matrix specifies flow rate taking place at a specific combination of orifice opening and pressure differential. The matrix size must match the dimensions defined by the input vectors. The default values, in m^3/s, are:This parameter is used if[-1e-07 -7.0711e-08 -4.4721e-08 4.4721e-08 7.0711e-08 1e-07; -2.0352e-05 -1.4391e-05 -9.1017e-06 9.1017e-06 1.4391e-05 2.0352e-05; -0.0040736 -0.0028805 -0.0018218 0.0018218 0.0028805 0.0040736; -0.011438 -0.0080879 -0.0051152 0.0051152 0.0080879 0.011438; -0.034356 -0.024293 -0.015364 0.015364 0.024293 0.034356;]

**Orifice specification**is set to`By pressure-flow characteristic`

.**Interpolation method**Select one of the following interpolation methods for approximating the output value when the input value is between two consecutive grid points:

`Linear`

— Select this option to get the best performance.`Smooth`

— Select this option to produce a continuous curve (`By area vs. opening table`

) or surface (`By pressure-flow characteristic`

) with continuous first-order derivatives.

For more information on interpolation algorithms, see the PS Lookup Table (1D) and PS Lookup Table (2D) block reference pages.

**Extrapolation method**Select one of the following extrapolation methods for determining the output value when the input value is outside the range specified in the argument list:

`Linear`

— Select this option to produce a curve or surface with continuous first-order derivatives in the extrapolation region and at the boundary with the interpolation region.`Nearest`

— Select this option to produce an extrapolation that does not go above the highest point in the data or below the lowest point in the data.

For more information on extrapolation algorithms, see the PS Lookup Table (1D) and PS Lookup Table (2D) block reference pages.

**Flow discharge coefficient**Semi-empirical parameter for valve capacity characterization. Its value depends on the geometrical properties of the orifice, and usually is provided in textbooks or manufacturer data sheets. The default value is

`0.7`

.**Laminar transition specification**Select how the block transitions between the laminar and turbulent regimes:

`Pressure ratio`

— The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is smooth and depends on the value of the**Laminar flow pressure ratio**parameter. This method provides better simulation robustness.`Reynolds number`

— The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is assumed to take place when the Reynolds number reaches the value specified by the**Critical Reynolds number**parameter.

**Laminar flow pressure ratio**Pressure ratio at which the flow transitions between laminar and turbulent regimes. The default value is

`0.999`

. This parameter is visible only if the**Laminar transition specification**parameter is set to`Pressure ratio`

.**Critical Reynolds number**The maximum Reynolds number for laminar flow. The value of the parameter depends on the orifice geometrical profile. You can find recommendations on the parameter value in hydraulics textbooks. The default value is

`12`

, which corresponds to a round orifice in thin material with sharp edges. This parameter is visible only if the**Laminar transition specification**parameter is set to`Reynolds number`

.**Leakage area**The total area of possible leaks in the completely closed valve. The main purpose of the parameter is to maintain numerical integrity of the circuit by preventing a portion of the system from getting isolated after the valve is completely closed. The parameter value must be greater than 0. The default value is

`1e-12`

m^2.**Time constant**Sets the time constant of the first-order lag, which is introduced between the required and the actual poppet positions to account for actuator dynamics. The parameter value must be greater than zero. The default value is

`0.01`

s.

## Global Parameters

Parameters determined by the type of working fluid:

**Fluid density****Fluid kinematic viscosity**

Use the Hydraulic Fluid block or the Custom Hydraulic Fluid block to specify the fluid properties.

## Ports

The block has the following ports:

`A`

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the valve inlet.

`B`

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the valve outlet.

`X`

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the valve control terminal.

## Extended Capabilities

## Version History

**Introduced in R2008a**