# Documentation

### This is machine translation

Translated by
Mouse over text to see original. Click the button below to return to the English verison of the page.

# nyquist

Nyquist plot of frequency response

## Syntax

```nyquist(sys)nyquist(sys,w)nyquist(sys1,sys2,...,sysN)nyquist(sys1,sys2,...,sysN,w)nyquist(sys1,'PlotStyle1',...,sysN,'PlotStyleN')[re,im,w] = nyquist(sys)[re,im] = nyquist(sys,w)[re,im,w,sdre,sdim] = nyquist(sys)```

## Description

`nyquist` creates a Nyquist plot of the frequency response of a dynamic system model. When invoked without left-hand arguments, `nyquist` produces a Nyquist plot on the screen. Nyquist plots are used to analyze system properties including gain margin, phase margin, and stability.

`nyquist(sys)` creates a Nyquist plot of a dynamic system `sys`. This model can be continuous or discrete, and SISO or MIMO. In the MIMO case, `nyquist` produces an array of Nyquist plots, each plot showing the response of one particular I/O channel. The frequency points are chosen automatically based on the system poles and zeros.

`nyquist(sys,w)` explicitly specifies the frequency range or frequency points to be used for the plot. To focus on a particular frequency interval, set ```w = {wmin,wmax}```. To use particular frequency points, set `w` to the vector of desired frequencies. Use `logspace` to generate logarithmically spaced frequency vectors. Frequencies must be in `rad/TimeUnit`, where `TimeUnit` is the time units of the input dynamic system, specified in the `TimeUnit` property of `sys`.

`nyquist(sys1,sys2,...,sysN)` or `nyquist(sys1,sys2,...,sysN,w)` superimposes the Nyquist plots of several LTI models on a single figure. All systems must have the same number of inputs and outputs, but may otherwise be a mix of continuous- and discrete-time systems. You can also specify a distinctive color, linestyle, and/or marker for each system plot with the syntax `nyquist(sys1,'PlotStyle1',...,sysN,'PlotStyleN')`.

`[re,im,w] = nyquist(sys)` and ```[re,im] = nyquist(sys,w)``` return the real and imaginary parts of the frequency response at the frequencies `w` (in `rad/TimeUnit`). `re` and `im` are 3-D arrays (see "Arguments" below for details).

`[re,im,w,sdre,sdim] = nyquist(sys)` also returns the standard deviations of `re` and `im` for the identified system `sys`.

## Arguments

The output arguments `re` and `im` are 3-D arrays with dimensions

For SISO systems, the scalars `re(1,1,k)` and `im(1,1,k)` are the real and imaginary parts of the response at the frequency ωk = w(k).

`$\begin{array}{l}\text{re}\left(1,1,k\right)=\mathrm{Re}\left(h\left(j{\omega }_{k}\right)\right)\\ \text{im}\left(1,1,k\right)=\mathrm{Im}\left(h\left(j{w}_{k}\right)\right)\end{array}$`

For MIMO systems with transfer function H(s), `re(:,:,k)` and `im(:,:,k)` give the real and imaginary parts of H(k) (both arrays with as many rows as outputs and as many columns as inputs). Thus,

`$\begin{array}{l}\text{re}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{(i,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{j,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{k)}=\mathrm{Re}\left({h}_{ij}\left(j{\omega }_{k}\right)\right)\\ \text{im}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{(i,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{j,}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{k)}=\mathrm{Im}\left({h}_{ij}\left(j{\omega }_{k}\right)\right)\end{array}$`

where hij is the transfer function from input j to output i.

## Examples

### Nyquist Plot of Dynamic System

Plot the Nyquist response of the system

`$H\left(s\right)=\frac{2{s}^{2}+5s+1}{{s}^{2}+2s+3}$`
```H = tf([2 5 1],[1 2 3]); nyquist(H) ```

The nyquist function has support for M-circles, which are the contours of the constant closed-loop magnitude. M-circles are defined as the locus of complex numbers where

`$T\left(j\omega \right)=|\frac{G\left(j\omega \right)}{1+G\left(j\omega \right)}|$`

is a constant value. In this equation, ω is the frequency in radians/TimeUnit, where `TimeUnit` is the system time units, and G is the collection of complex numbers that satisfy the constant magnitude requirement.

To activate the grid, select Grid from the right-click menu or type

```grid ```

at the MATLAB® prompt. This figure shows the M circles for transfer function H.

You have two zoom options available from the right-click menu that apply specifically to Nyquist plots:

• Tight —Clips unbounded branches of the Nyquist plot, but still includes the critical point (-1, 0)

• On (-1,0) — Zooms around the critical point (-1,0)

Also, click anywhere on the curve to activate data markers that display the real and imaginary values at a given frequency. This figure shows the nyquist plot with a data marker.

### Nyquist Plot of Identified Model with Response Uncertainty

Compute the standard deviation of the real and imaginary parts of frequency response of an identified model. Use this data to create a 3σ plot of the response uncertainty. (Identified models require System Identification Toolbox™.)

Identify a transfer function model based on data. Obtain the standard deviation data for the real and imaginary parts of the frequency response.

```load iddata2 z2; sys_p = tfest(z2,2); w = linspace(-10*pi,10*pi,512); [re, im, ~, sdre, sdim] = nyquist(sys_p,w);```

`sys_p` is an identified transfer function model. `sdre` and `sdim` contain `1-std` standard deviation uncertainty values in `re` and `im` respectively.

Create a `Nyquist` plot showing the response and its uncertainty:

```re = squeeze(re); im = squeeze(im); sdre = squeeze(sdre); sdim = squeeze(sdim); plot(re,im,'b', re+3*sdre, im+3*sdim, 'k:', re-3*sdre, im-3*sdim, 'k:')```

collapse all

### Tips

You can change the properties of your plot, for example the units. For information on the ways to change properties of your plots, see Ways to Customize Plots.